The Structure Of The Atom
Air, water, mountains, animals, plants, your
body, the chair on which you sit, in short, everything you see,
touch, and feel, from the heaviest to the lightest is formed of
atoms. Each page of the book you hold in your hand comprises billions
of atoms. Atoms are particles so minute that it is impossible to
view one even with the most powerful microscopes. The diameter of
an atom is only of the order of one millionth of a millimetre.
It is not possible for a human being to visualize this
size. Therefore, let us try to explain it with an example:
Think that you have a key in your
hand. No doubt, it is impossible for you to see the atoms in this
key. If you say you must see the atoms, then you have to magnify
the key in your hand to the proportions of the world. Once the key
in your hand becomes as large as the earth, then each atom inside
the key is the size of a cherry.1
Let us give another example to comprehend this minuteness
and how everywhere and everything is full of atoms:
Let us suppose that we want to count
all the atoms in a single grain of salt and let us assume that we
are able to count one billion (1,000,000,000) atoms per second.
Despite our considerable deftness, we would need over five hundred
years to count the number of atoms inside this tiny grain of salt.2
What, then, is there inside such a small structure?
Despite its exceedingly small size, there is a flawless,
unique and complex system inside the atom comparable in sophistication
to the system we see in the universe at large.
Each atom is made up of a nucleus and a number of electrons
moving in orbital shells at great distances from the nucleus. Inside
the nucleus are other particles called protons and neutrons.
In this chapter, we will look at the extraordinary
structure of the atom that constitutes the basis of everything animate
and inanimate, and see how the atoms combine to form molecules and
The Power Hidden In the Nucleus
The nucleus is located right at the centre of the atom and is made
up of a certain number of protons and neutrons depending on the
properties of that atom. The radius of the nucleus is about ten
thousandth of the radius of the atom. To express that in numbers,
the radius of the atom is 10-8 (0.00000001) cm, the radius
of the nucleus is 10-12 (0.000000000001) cm. Therefore,
the volume of the nucleus is equal to a ten billionth of the volume
of the atom.
||Protons and electrons are made
up of groups of three quarks
||A set of three quarks-these make
up a proton-would have strings at their heart
Since we cannot visualize
this vastness (better to say, minuteness), let us take our example
of the cherry. Let us look for the nucleus inside the atoms that
we had visualised as the size of cherries when the key in your hand
was magnified to be the size of the earth. But such a search would
be inconclusive because even at that scale, it is absolutely impossible
for us to view the nucleus, which is still exceedingly small. If
we really want to see it, then we would have to change the scale
again. The cherry representing our atom must again expand and become
a large ball two hundred metres in diameter. Even at this unbelievable
scale, the nucleus of our atom would not become any bigger than
a very tiny grain of dust.3
So much so that when we compare the diameter of
the nucleus that is 10-13 cm and the diameter of the
atom that is 10-8 cm, we come to the following result:
if we assume the atom to be a sphere, if we wished to fill this
sphere totally with nuclei, then we would need 1015 (1,000,000,000,000,000)
nuclei to fill it.4
Yet there is one thing even more surprising
than that: although its size is one ten billionth of an atom's size,
the nucleus' mass comprises 99.95% of the mass of the atom. How
is it that something constitutes almost all of a given mass, while,
on the other hand, occupying almost no space?
2- yellow sapphire
5- blue sapphire
8- lime stone
13- emery stone
16- quart z
23- rock salt
What causes the difference between the
elements is the number of protons in the nuclei of their atoms.
It is this difference that makes the materials shown above
appear so different from each other
The reason is that the density comprising the mass of the atom is
not distributed evenly throughout the whole atom. That is, almost
the entire mass of the atom is accumulated in the nucleus. Say,
you have a house of 10 billion square metres and you have to put
all the furniture in the house in a room of one square metre. Can
you do this? Of course you cannot. Yet, the atomic nucleus is able
to do this thanks to a tremendous force unlike any other force in
the universe. This force is the "strong nuclear force",
one of the four fundamental forces in the universe we mentioned
in the previous chapter.
We had noted that this force, the most powerful of
the forces in nature, keeps the nucleus of an atom intact and keeps
it from fragmenting. All the protons in the nucleus have positive
charges and they repel each other because of the electro-magnetic
force. However, due to the strong nuclear force, which is 100 times
stronger than the repulsive force of the protons, the electro-magnetic
force becomes ineffective, and thus the protons are held together.
To sum up, there are two great forces interacting with each other
inside an atom so small as to be unseen to us. The nucleus is able
to stay together as a whole owing to the precise values of these
When we consider the size of the atom and the number
of atoms in the universe, it is impossible to fail to notice that
there is tremendous equilibrium and design at work. It is crystal
clear that the fundamental forces in the universe have been created
in a very special way with great wisdom and power. The only thing
those who reject faith resort to is nothing other than claiming
that all of these came into being as a result of "coincidences".
Probabilistic calculations, however, scientifically put the probability
of the equilibriums in the universe being formed "coincidentally"
at "0". All these are clear evidence of the existence
of Allah and the perfection of His creation.
…My Lord encompasses all things in His knowledge
so will you not pay heed? (Surat
The Space In the Atom
As mentioned previously, the greater part of an
atom consists of space. This makes everyone think of the same question:
why is there such space? Let us think. In simple terms, the atom
consists of a nucleus, around which electrons revolve. There is
nothing else between the nucleus and the electrons. This microscopic
distance "in which nothing exists" is in fact a very large
one on the atomic scale. We can exemplify this scale as follows:
if a small marble of one centimetre in diameter represents the electron
closest to the nucleus, the nucleus would be one kilometre away
from this marble.5We can cite the following example
to make this magnitude clearer in our mind:
There is a great space lying between
the basic particles. If I think of the proton of an oxygen nucleus
as the head of a pin lying on the table in front of me, then the
electron revolving around it draws a circle passing through Holland,
Germany and Spain (The writer of these lines lives in France).
Therefore, if all atoms forming my body came together so close
as to touch each other, you would not be able to see me any more.
You would actually never be able to see me with the naked eye.
I would be as small as a tiny dust particle of the size of a several
thousandth of a millimetre.6
At this point, we realise that there is a similarity
between the largest and the smallest spaces known in the universe.
When we turn our eyes to the stars, there again we see a void similar
to that in the atoms. There are voids of billions of kilometres
both between the stars and between the galaxies. Yet, in both of
these voids, an order that is beyond the understanding of human
Inside the Nucleus: Protons and
Until 1932, it was thought that the nucleus only consisted of protons
and electrons. It was discovered then that there are not electrons
but neutrons in the nucleus besides the protons. (The renowned scientist
Chadwick proved in 1932 the existence of neutrons in the nucleus
and he was awarded a Noble Prize for his discovery). Mankind was
introduced to the real structure of the atom only at such a recent
We had mentioned before how small is the nucleus of
the atom. The size of a proton that is able to fit in the atomic
nucleus is 10-15 metres.
You may think that such a small particle would not
have any meaning in one's life. However, these particles that are
so small as to be incomprehensible by the human mind form the basis
of everything you see around you.
Source of the Diversity In the
There are 109 elements that so far have been identified. The entire
universe, our earth, and all animate and inanimate beings are formed
by the arrangement of these 109 elements in various combinations.
Thus far, we saw that all elements are made up of atoms that are
similar to each other, which, in turn are made up of the same particles.
So, if all the atoms constituting the elements are made up of the
same particles, what then is it that makes the elements different
from each other and causes the formation of infinitely diverse matters?
It is the number of protons in the nuclei of the atoms
that principally differentiates the elements from each other. There
is one proton in the hydrogen atom, the lightest element, 2 protons
in the helium atom, the second lightest element, 79 protons in the
gold atom, 8 protons in the oxygen atom and 26 protons in the iron
atom. What differentiates gold from iron and iron from oxygen is
simply the different numbers of protons in their atoms. The air
we breathe, our bodies, the plants and animals, planets in space,
animate and inanimate, bitter and sweet, solid and liquid, everything…
all of these are ultimately made up of protons, neutrons and electrons.
The Borderline of Physical Existence:
Until 20 years ago, it was believed that the smallest particles
making up the atoms were protons and neutrons. Yet, most recently,
it has been discovered that there are much smaller particles in
the atom that form the abovementioned particles.
This discovery led to the development of a branch of
physics called "Particle Physics" investigating the "sub-particles"
within the atom and their particular movements. Research conducted
by particle physics revealed that the protons and neutrons making
up the atom are actually formed of sub-particles called "quarks".
In the diagram to left, you see four
different types of orbits made by electrons, depending
on the wave motion. Electrons
follow orbits in much the same way as the planets move
around the sun depending on the properties of their
different motions of the electrons prevent their precise
The dimension of the quarks that form the proton, which
is so small as to exceed the capabilities of human imagination,
is much more astounding: 10-18 (0.000000000000000001)
The quarks inside a proton can never be pulled apart
from each other very much because the "strong nuclear force"
that is responsible for keeping the particles inside the nucleus
together operates here as well. This force serves as a rubber band
between the quarks. As the distance between the quarks increases,
so does this force and two quarks cannot become more distant from
each other than a quadrillionth of a metre. These rubber bands between
the quarks are formed by gluons that possess the strong nuclear
force. The quarks and the gluons have a very strong interaction.
However, scientists have not yet been able to discover how this
interaction takes place.
Research is underway in the field of "Particle
Physics" to unravel the world of sub-atomic particles. Yet,
despite all the intellect, consciousness and knowledge mankind possesses,
we have only recently been able to discover the very basic particles
forming everything, including ourselves. Further, the more we delve
into these particles, the more detailed the subject becomes, leaving
us in the lurch at the limit of the 10-18 m dimension
of the quark. So, what lies beyond this limit?
Today, scientists propound various hypotheses on this
subject, but as mentioned above, this limit is the furthest point
hitherto reached in the material universe. Everything beyond that
point can only be expressed as energy, not as matter. The really
important point is that man finds, in a location that he has only
just been able to discover with all the technological means at his
disposal, enormous balances and the laws of physics already running
like a clock. Furthermore, this location is inside the atom, which
constitutes the building block of all matter in the universe, as
well as of human beings.
Man has just started to become aware of the perfect
mechanism functioning without fail in the organs and systems in
his own body. His discovery of the mechanisms of the cells forming
these structures goes back only a few decades. The supreme creation
evident in the atoms lying at the basis of cells, the protons and
neutrons in the atoms, and the quarks in these particle is so perfect
as to stagger everyone, be him believer or not. The basic point
to be pondered here is that all of these perfect mechanisms run
in an orderly fashion every second throughout man's life, without
any intervention by him, and totally outside his control. It is
very self-evident fact to everyone who uses his conscience and wisdom
that all of these have been created by Allah, Owner of superior
power and knowledge, and are governed by Him.
Everyone in the heavens and earth
requests His aid. Every day He is engaged in some affair. So which
of your Lord's blessings do you then deny? (Surat ar-Rahman: 29-30)
The Other Aspect of the Atoms: Electrons
Electrons are particles spinning and revolving
around the nucleus of the atom similar to the earth rotating on
its own axis as it also revolves around the sun. This rotation,
like that of the planets, is realised ceaselessly and in perfect
order on paths we call orbits. Yet, the proportion of the size of
the earth and the sun is very different from the atomic scale. To
make a comparison between the size of electrons and the size of
the earth, if we enlarge an atom as big as the earth, the electron
would be in the size of an apple.7
Tens of electrons revolving in an area so small as
to be invisible even to the most powerful microscopes create a very
complex traffic inside the atom. The most remarkable point here
is that these electrons surrounding the nucleus like an armour of
electrical charge do not have even a small accident. In fact, any
small accident inside the atom would cause a disaster for the atom.
However, such an accident never takes place. The whole operation
runs flawlessly. The electrons revolving around the nucleus at the
mind-boggling speed of 1,000 km/second never collide with each other.
It is extremely amazing that these electrons, which are no different
from each other, follow separate orbits, and it is obviously the
result of a "conscious creation". If they had different
masses and velocities, it might be natural for them to settle in
different orbits around the nucleus. For instance, the order of
the planets in our solar system follows this logic. Planets that
have totally different masses and velocities are naturally settled
in different orbits around the sun. But the case with the electrons
in the atom is totally different from that of these planets. The
electrons are exactly alike but have different orbits around the
nucleus: how do they follow these paths unerringly, how do they
not collide though they have incredibly small dimensions and move
at incredible speeds? These questions lead us to a single point:
the only truth we face in this unique order and delicate equilibrium
is the perfect creation of Allah.
He is Allah - the Creator, the Maker, the
Giver of Form. To Him belong the Most Beautiful Names. Everything
in the heavens and earth glorifies Him. He is the Almighty, the
All-Wise. (Surat al-Hashr: 24)
Electrons are small particles, almost two thousandth the size of
neutrons and protons. An atom has the same number of electrons as
protons and each electron bears a negative (-) charge equal to the
positive (+) charge borne by each proton. The total positive (+)
charge in the nucleus and the total negative (-) charge of the electrons
cancel each other and the atom becomes neutral.
The electric charge they carry obliges electrons to
obey certain laws of physics. One of these laws of physics is that
"same electrical charges repel each other and opposite charges
attract each other".
First, under normal circumstances, the electrons, all
negatively charged, would be expected to repel each other by obeying
this rule and shoot away from the nucleus. Yet, this does not happen.
If the electrons were scattered from the nucleus, then the universe
would consist of idle protons, neutrons and electrons wandering
in the void. Second, the positively charged nucleus would be expected
to attract the negative charged electrons and the electrons would
stick to the nucleus. In that case, the nucleus would attract all
the electrons and the atom would implode.
However, none of these things occur. The abovementioned
extraordinary escape velocities of the electrons (1,000 km/sec),
the repelling force they exert on each other and the force of attraction
the nucleus exerts on the electrons are based on such precise values
that these three contradicting factors perfectly balance each other.
As a result, this outstanding system inside the atom runs without
falling apart. Even if a single one of these forces impinging on
the atom were a little bit more or less than it has to be, the atom
would never exist.
In addition to these factors, if the nuclear forces binding protons
and neutrons in the nucleus to each other did not exist, protons
having equal charges could not even come close to each other, much
less bond together in a nucleus. In the same manner, the neutrons
would never be able to stick to the nucleus. As a result, there
would be no nucleus and therefore, no atom.
All these fine calculations are indications that even
a single atom is not idle but acts under the perfect control of
Allah. Otherwise, it would be inevitable that the universe we live
in would end before it started. This process would backfire at the
outset and the universe would not form. However, Allah, the Creator
of everything, the Omnipotent and the Almighty, established extremely
precise equilibriums inside the atom just as He established all
the balances in the universe, thanks to which the atom continues
to exist in perfect order.
Scientists have spent their best efforts over the years to unravel
the secret of this balance established by Allah, and have ended
up with merely appointing certain names to observed phenomena such
as "the electromagnetic force", "the strong nuclear
force", "the weak nuclear force", and "the mass
attraction force"… Yet, as mentioned in the introductory part
of the book, no one has given a thought to the question "Why?"
Why do these forces act at certain intensities under certain rules?
Why do the domains that are governed by these forces, the rules
they obey, and the intensity of these forces have such great harmony?
Scientists were desperate in the face of all these
questions because all they can do is guess at the order in which
the events take place. Their research, however, gave rise to an
indisputable reality. Every point in the universe reveals the intervention
of an Owner of intellect and will Who does not leave even a single
atom idle. There is a single power that holds all forces together
in harmony, and that is Allah, Who holds all the power and might.
Allah manifests His might wherever He wills whenever He wills. The
entire universe from the smallest atom to the endless galaxies is
able to continue its existence only by Allah's will and preservation.
In the Qur'an, Allah states that there is no power but Him and He
announces the punishment of those who, unaware of this, assume that
the powerless beings (animate or inanimate) He created have power
and strength independently of Him, and attribute divine characteristics
Oh, that those who do evil had but known,
(on the day) when they see the punishment, that power belongs wholly
to Allah, and that Allah is severe in punishment! (Surat
So far no scientist has yet been able to explain the cause and source
of the forces in the atom and therefore in the universe, and why
certain forces come into play on certain occasions. What science
does is only to make observations, take measurements and designate
"names" for them.
Such "namings" are regarded as great discoveries
in the world of science. In fact, what scientists do is not an attempt
to form a new equilibrium in the universe or build a new system
but just an effort to comprehend and unravel the secret of the evident
equilibrium in the cosmos. What they mostly do is simply observe
one of the countless wonders of Allah's creation in the universe
and assigning a name to it. Scientists detecting a superior system
or structure created by Allah are awarded various scientific prizes,
honoured and admired by other people. In this case, the one who
really should be honoured is, without doubt, Allah, the Most Gracious,
the Most Merciful, Who brought that system into being when it was
not, furnished it with exceedingly delicate balances, and endlessly
creates extraordinary miracles the like of them.
In the alternation of night and day and what
Allah has created in the heavens and the earth there are Signs for
people who fear Him. (Surah Yunus:
Orbits of Electrons
Electrons follow an
extremely complex orbit within the atom. Although a
much more crowded environment than city traffic is formed
in such a small place, not even one accident takes place.
Tens of electrons, which spin and orbit in an area
unobservable even by the most powerful microscopes, create an extremely
complex traffic inside the atom as we mentioned earlier. This traffic,
however, is so orderly as to be incomparably more orderly than the
most systematic city traffic. Electrons never collide with each
other, because each electron has a separate orbit and these orbits
There are 7 electron shells around the nucleus of the
atom. The numbers of electrons in these seven electron shells that
never change have been specified by a mathematical formula: 2n2.
The maximum numbers of electrons that can be present in each electron
shell around the atom have been fixed by this formula. (The letter
n in the formula shows the electron shell number).
That the endless number of electron shells of atoms
making up the universe precisely stick to the same number by obeying
the 2n2 formula indicates order. That no chaos occurs
inside the atom although the electrons move about at incredible
speeds is a further indication of this unique order. This is an
order that can by no means be attributed to coincidence. The only
explanation for the existence of this order is that Allah created
everything as a manifestation of His power in an order and harmony
as told in the Qur'an. Allah refers to this order He created in
the verses of the Qur'an:
...Allah has appointed a measure
for all things. (Surat at-Talaq:
…He created everything and determined it most
exactly. (Surat al-Furqan: 2)
Everything has its measure with Him, the Knower
of the Unseen and the Visible, the Most Great, the High-Exalted.
(Surat ar-R'ad: 8-9)
As for the earth, We stretched it out and
cast firmly embedded mountains in it and made everything grow in
due proportion on it. (Surat al-Hijr:
The sun and the moon both run with precision. (Surat
He erected heaven and established the balance.
(Surat ar-Rahman: 7)
As the verses reveal, Allah, the Lord of all the worlds, is He Who
creates everything in perfect proportion, measure and order. This
proportion and measure cover the entire realm of beings from the
smallest sub-atomic particle to the gigantic celestial bodies in
space: solar systems, galaxies and everything between them. This
is the outcome of the endless and infinite might, knowledge, artistry
and wisdom of Allah. Allah introduces His attributes to human beings
in the perfect measure, order, and equilibrium in the beings and
systems He creates. He displays His endless power before our very
eyes. This is the truth to which all scientific research and calculations
must lead man.
Wave or Particle?
When electrons were first discovered, they were thought to be particles
like the protons and neutrons found in the nucleus. In the experiments
that followed, however, it was discovered that they display wave
characteristics like light particles, that is, photons. Subsequently,
quantum physicists came to the conclusion that every particle is
simultaneously a wave form with its own distinct frequency.
It is known that light is spread in a way similar to
the ripples created on the surface of water when a stone is throne
into a lake. However, light sometimes bears the characteristic of
a particle of matter and is observed in the form of sporadic, intermittent
pulses like rain drops falling on a window-pane. This same dichotomy
was experienced in the electron as well, which led to great confusion
in the world of science. The following words of Richard P. Feynman,
the renowned Professor of Theoretical Physics, was to lay the whole
confusion to rest:
Now we know how the electrons and
light behave. But what can I call it? If I say they behave like
particles I give the wrong impression; also if I say they behave
like waves. They behave in their own inimitable way, which technically
could be called a quantum mechanical way. They behave in a way
that is like nothing that you have ever seen before… An atom does
not behave like a weight hanging on a spring and oscillating.
Nor does it behave like a miniature representation of the solar
system with little planets going around in orbits. Nor does it
appear to be somewhat like a cloud or fog of some sort surrounding
the nucleus. It behaves like nothing you have ever seen before.
There is one simplification at least. Electrons behave in this
respect in exactly the same way as photons; they are both screwy,
but in exactly the same way. How they behave, therefore, takes
a great deal of imagination to appreciate, because we are going
to describe something that is different from anything you know
Because scientists were never able to explain the behaviour
of electrons, as a solution they gave a new name to it: "Quantum
Mechanical Motion". Let us again quote from Professor Feynman
who in the following words states the exceptional nature of that
and the awe he feels:
Do not keep saying to yourself,
if you can possibly avoid it, 'But how can it be like that?' because
you will get 'down the drain', into a blind alley from which nobody
has yet escaped. Nobody knows how it can be like that.9
Yet, the blind alley Feynman refers to here is
actually not so. The reason why some people can never figure a way
out of this dilemma is that despite substantial evidence, they cannot
accept that these incredible systems and equilibriums have been
brought into existence by the sublime Creator. The situation is
extremely clear: Allah created the universe when it was not, furnished
it with extraordinary balances and brought it into being without
any preceding example. The answer to the scientists' question "How
can it be like that?" that can never be solved, nor understood,
lies in the fact that Allah is the Creator of everything and that
everything exists only by His command "Be!"
To Him is due the primal origin of the heavens
and the earth. When He decides on something,
He just says to it, 'Be!' and it is. (Surat
The World Full of Colour Whose Gates are
Opened by Electrons
Have you ever thought what it would be like to live in a world without
colour? Try to visualise your body, the people around you, the seas,
the sky, trees, flowers, in short, everything in black. You would
never want to live in such a world, would you?
What makes the earth colourful? How do the colours, which make our
world so extraordinarily beautiful, come into being?
Certain characteristics present in the nature of matter allow us
perceive objects in colour. Colours are formed as a natural result
of certain motions of the electrons inside the atom. You may think
"What do the motions of electrons have to do with colours?"
Let's briefly explain this relationship:
Electrons revolve only in electron shells. We just mentioned that
there are 7 electron shells. Each electron shell has a specific
level of energy, which varies depending on the distance of the shell
from the nucleus. The closer an electron shell is to the nucleus,
the less energy its electrons have, and the farther it is to the
nucleus, the more energy its electrons have.
Each electron shell has "sub-shells", among which the
electrons of that shell continuously move.
An electron needs to receive external energy to be able to travel
outwards between the shells. The source of this energy is the "photon".
In its simplest terms, the photon is a "light
particle". Every star in the universe is a source of photons.
The most important source of photons for our world is, of course,
the sun. Photons are diffused throughout space from the sun at a
speed of 300,000 km a second.
When these photons, arriving on earth from the sun,
strike the atoms of objects on earth, the electrons of atoms sometimes
begin their travel. If the electrons that are able to travel by
the help of this energy rise to a higher energy shell and then return
to their own shell, they emit a photon that is to form the colour
that will meet our eye. Each one of these processes summarized in
the few sentences above has been continuing since the outset of
creation without fail. Every step runs under a great plan and to
order. If only one part of this interaction between electrons and
photons had not worked, this would cause a colourless, dark universe.
Let us again list these steps that have to work according
to plan and in order for the formation of a universe with colours
instead of a dark one.
Light coming from the sun to the earth diffuses
in the form of photon particles. These photon particles scattered
around the earth strike atoms of matters.
Photons cannot travel a long way inside the atoms.
They strike the electrons circling the nucleus.
Electrons absorb these photons that strike them.
When the electrons take in the energy of the photons
they absorb, they jump to another shell having a higher level
These electrons try to return to their original
As they return to their own shells, they emit
an energy charged photon.
- These photons emitted by the electrons determine
the colour of that object.
To sum up, the colour of an object in fact consists
of a mixture of these light particles that are absorbed, then emitted
by this object, and reach our eyes. The colour of an object that
does not emit light itself but reflects the light it receives from
the sun depends both on the light it receives and the change it
makes on this light. If the object illuminated with white light
appears "red", this is because it absorbs a large portion
of the mixture that arrives to it from the sunrays and emits only
red. By saying "it absorbs", we mean the following:
70% of the rays reaching our earth from
the sun are just appropriate for the existence of life on
As mentioned before, every shell has sub-shells and
electrons travel between these sub-shells. Each shell corresponds
to a specific level of energy, and electrons carry as much energy
as allowed by the energy level of the shell on which they circle.
Shells that are more distant from the nucleus, have higher energy.
When a space for one electron becomes available in an upper shell,
the electron suddenly disappears, and then re-appears again in that
sub-shell with higher energy level. Yet, in order for the electron
to perform this, it has to raise its energy level to the level required
by the shell to which it jumps. The electron increases its energy
level by absorbing (swallowing) photon particles coming from the
We can make the situation clearer with a few examples. Let us consider
the Morpho Butterfly. The pigments on the butterfly absorb the entire
sunlight re-emitting only the colour blue. When the light particles
for that reflected colour reach the retina in the eye, they are
converted to electrical signals by the cone cells in the retina
in such a way to be perceived as blue and sent to the brain. Eventually,
the colour blue is formed in the brain.
This means that the colour of an object depends on the character
of the light emitted from the light source and how much of this
light is re-emitted by the object in question. For instance, the
colour of a dress is not the same under sunlight and in a store.
If an object is perceived as black by our brain, it means that this
object absorbs all the light coming from the sun reflecting none
to the outside. In the same manner, if the object reflects all light
coming from the sun and does not absorb any of it, then it is perceived
as white by our brain. In this case, the points that need careful
consideration are the following:
1. The colour of an object depends on the properties of the light
emitted by the light source.
2. The colour of an object depends on the reaction of the electrons
of the molecules in its structure, as to which light these electrons
will absorb and which they will not.
3. The colour of an object depends on how our brain will perceive
the photon striking the retina.
Here, let us stop and think once more.
The electrons that revolve at incredible speed around
the nucleus of the atom, which is a matter too small to be seen
with the eye, suddenly disappear from their own shells and jump
to another place called a sub-shell. There also needs to be a space
available on the sub-shell for this leap. They are supplied the
energy they require during the process by absorbing photons. They
then go back to their original orbits. During this action, colours
perceivable by the human eye are formed. What's more, atoms in number
expressible in trillions keep doing this every moment, thanks to
which we are able to view an uninterrupted "image".
superior design in the formation of colours leads us to a single
fact: the universe has been created in a great harmony and order
from its smallest to its largest particles. The artistry in
the colours is one of the signs of Allah's perfect creation.
This magnificent mechanism is not comparable to the
operation of any man-made machine. A clock, for instance, has a
highly complex mechanism in itself, and all the parts of a clock
(gears, discs, screws, nuts, etc.) must be located in the right
places in the right way for a clock to work properly. The smallest
problem in this mechanism would impede the mechanism of the clock.
Yet, when we think of the structure of an atom and how the abovementioned
mechanism of the electrons works, the simplicity of the structure
of a clock is better understood. As we said, the mechanism of the
electrons is too complex, perfect and flawless to be compared to
any man-made system. Definitely, a system that has such mind-boggling
complexity and runs so perfectly could not have come about spontaneously,
as a result of coincidence, as claimed by materialist scientists.
Let us now ask the following question: if you saw a working clock
on the ground while walking in a desert, would you think that this
had formed out of dust, sand, soil and stones by chance? Nobody
would think that, because the design and wisdom in the clock are
all too obvious. However the design and wisdom in a single atom
are, as we mentioned above, incomparably superior to those in any
man-made mechanism. The owner of this wisdom is Allah, Who has supreme
knowledge, Who knows, sees and creates everything.
Allah created every 'where' both
that which we are able to see and that which we cannot, with boundless
artistry and He gave innumerable favours to be at our service, whether
we are aware of them or not. The subject of colours about which
we previously knew nothing, and felt no need to learn, has been
brought to our attention in all its details and complexity as science
advanced. It is undeniable that scientific development and progress
ought to cause everyone who uses his wisdom and conscience to believe
in the existence of Allah. Nonetheless, people still exist who ignore
the superior artistry and wisdom observable at every point in the
universe. The acclaimed scientist, Louis Pasteur made an interesting
remark on this subject saying "Little science takes you away
from God but more of it takes you to Him".10
As a person learns more about the examples of
creation surrounding him, he grasps much better that Allah encompasses
him from every direction, He directs all affairs in heaven and earth,
and holds everything under control. He understands that his life
will certainly be taken and he will be answerable for everything
he has done on earth. As a believer becomes more acquainted with
the innumerable phenomena taking place around him, his admiration
for Allah's knowledge increasingly grows. This admiration is a very
important step on the way to perceiving the infinite power and might
of Allah as much as possible and fearing Him as required. This is
stated in the Qur'an:
Do you not see that Allah sends down
water from the sky and by it We bring forth fruits of varying colours?
And in the mountains there are streaks of white and red, of varying
shades, and rocks of deep jet black. And mankind and beasts and
livestock are likewise of varying colours. Only those of His slaves
with knowledge have fear of Allah. Allah is Almighty, Ever-Forgiving.
(Surah Fatir: 27-28)
Jean Guitton, Dieu et La Science:Vers Le Métaréalisme,
Paris:Grasset, 1991, p. 62
2.Jean Guitton, Dieu et La Science:Vers Le Métaréalisme,
Paris:Grasset, 1991, p. 62
3. Jean Guitton, Dieu et La Science:Vers Le Métaréalisme,
Paris:Grasset, 1991, p. 62
4. Ümit Simsek, Atom (The Atom), Yeni Asya Yayinlari, p.7
5. Taskin Tuna, Uzayin Otesi (Beyond Space), Bogazici Yayinlari, 1995,
6.Jean Guitton, Dieu et La Science:Vers Le Métaréalisme,
Paris:Grasset, 1991, p. 62
7. Taskin Tuna, Uzayin Otesi (Beyond Space), Bogazici Yayinlari, 1995,
8. Richard Feynman, The Character of Physical Law, The M.I.T. Press,
March 1967, p. 128
9. Richard Feynman, The Character of Physical Law, The M.I.T. Press,
March 1967, p. 129
10. Jean Guitton, Dieu et La Science:Vers Le Métaréalisme,
Paris:Grasset, 1991, p. 5