The Blue Planet
The Earth, with its atmosphere
and oceans, its complex biosphere, its crust of relatively oxidised,
silica rich, sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rocks overlaying
[a magnesium silicate mantle and core] of metallic iron, with its
ice caps, deserts, forests, tundra, jungles, grasslands, fresh-water
lakes, coal beds, oil deposits, volcanoes, fumaroles, factories,
automobiles, plants, animals, magnetic field, ionosphere, mid-ocean
ridges, convincing mantle... is a system of stunning complexity.
J. S. Lewis, American Geologist 54
An imaginary space-traveler approaching the solar
system from interstellar space would encounter a very interesting
scene. Let us imagine that we are such travelers and that we're
arriving at the plane of the ecliptic–the great circle of the celestial
sphere in which all the major planets of our solar system move.
The first planet we will meet is Pluto. This planet is quite a cold
place. The temperature is around -238°C. The planet has a thin of
atmosphere that is in a gaseous state only when it draws slightly
nearer to the sun in its rather elliptical orbit. At other times,
the atmosphere becomes a mass of ice. Pluto, briefly, is a lifeless
sphere enveloped in ice.
created the heavens and the earth with truth. There is certainly
a Sign in that for the believers. (Surat al-Ankabut: 44)
Advancing towards the sun, you next encounter Neptune.
It is cold too: approximately -218°C. The atmosphere, consisting
of hydrogen, helium and methane, is poisonous for life. Winds blowing
nearly 2,000 kilometers an hour blast across the surface of the
Next is Uranus: a gaseous planet with rocks and ice on
its surface. The temperature is -214°C and the atmosphere again
consists of hydrogen, helium and methane-–unsuitable for human beings
to live in.
You reach Saturn after Uranus. This is the second biggest
planet in the solar system and is particularly notable for the system
of rings encircling it. These rings are made up of gases, rock and
ice. One of the many interesting things about Saturn is that it
is composed entirely of gas: 75% hydrogen and 25% helium and its
density is less than that of water. If you want to "land" on Saturn,
you'd better design your spaceship to be like an inflatable boat!
The average temperature is again very low: -178°C.
Coming up next is Jupiter: the biggest planet in the
solar system, it is 318 times the size of Earth. Like Saturn, Jupiter
is also a gaseous planet. Since it is difficult to distinguish between
"atmosphere" and "surface" on such planets, it is hard to say what
the "surface temperature" is but in the upper reaches of the atmosphere,
the temperature is -143°C. A notable feature of Jupiter's atmosphere
is something called the Great Red Spot. It was first noticed 300
hundred years ago. Astronomers now know that it is an enormous storm
system that has been raging in the Jovian atmosphere for centuries.
It is big enough to swallow up a couple of planets the size of Earth
whole. Jupiter may be a visually thrilling planet, but it's no home
for people, who would be killed instantly by its freezing temperatures,
violent winds, and intense radiation.
Then comes Mars. The atmosphere of Mars cannot sustain
human life because it is mostly carbon dioxide. The surface is everywhere
pocked with craters: the result of eons of meteor impacts and strong
winds blowing across the surface that can raise sandstorms that
last for days or weeks at a time. The temperature varies rather
much but drops as low as -53°C. There has been much speculation
that Mars might harbor life, but all the evidence shows that this
is a lifeless world too.
Speeding away from Mars and heading toward the sun, we
notice a blue planet that we decide to skip for the time being while
we explore some more. Our search brings us to a planet called Venus.
This planet is everywhere shrouded in brilliant white clouds but
the temperature at the surface is 450°C, which is enough to cause
lead to melt. The atmosphere is composed mostly of carbon dioxide.
At the surface, the atmospheric pressure is equal to 90 terrestrial
atmospheres: on Earth, you'd have to descend a kilometer into the
sea before you reached a pressure that high. The atmosphere of Venus
contains layers of gaseous sulfuric acid several kilometers deep.
When it rains on Venus, it isn't raining rain you know: it's raining
acid. No human or other life could exist in such a hellish place
for a second.
We press on and come to Mercury, a small, rocky world,
blasted by the heat and radiation of the sun. Its rotation has been
so slowed down by its proximity to the sun that the planet makes
only three full axial rotations in the time it takes to revolve
twice around the sun. In other words, two of Mercury's "years" is
equal to three of its "days". Because of this prolonged diurnal
cycle, one side of Mercury becomes extremely hot while the other
is extremely cold. The difference between the daytime and nighttime
sides of Mercury is as much as 1,000°C. Of course such an environment
cannot support life.
Even Mars, the only other planet
in the solar system to come close to resembling the earth
physically, is nothing but an arid, lifeless ball of rock.
To sum up, we've taken looks at eight planets and not
one of them, including their fifty-three satellites offers anything
that might serve as a haven for life. Each of them is lifeless ball
of gas, ice, or rock.
But the blue planet that we skipped over a while ago?
That one's very different from the others. With its hospitable atmosphere,
surface features, ambient temperatures, magnetic field, and supply
of elements and set just the right distance from the sun, it almost
seems as if it had been specially created to be a home for life.
And, as we shall discover, it was.
THE INFERNAL SURFACE OF VENUS
The surface temperature on Venus
reaches as high as 450° C, which is sufficient to melt lead.
The surface of this world resembles a ball of fire covered
with lava. Its atmosphere is thick with sulfuric acid and
a sulfuric acid rain falls constantly. The atmospheric pressure
at the surface is 90 times that of Earth: the equivalent
of a depth of 1,000 meters beneath the sea.
In the rest of this chapter we will
be examining features of Earth that make it clear that our planet
was created specifically for the support of life. But before we do
that, we need to make a brief digression in order to avoid the possibility
of any misunderstanding. This digression is especially for those who
are in the habit of recognizing the theory of evolution as a scientific
truth and who strongly believe in the concept of "adaptation".
A Brief Digression and Warning About "Adaptation"
"Adaptation" is the noun form of the
verb "adapt". "Adapt" implies a modification according to changing
circumstances. As used by evolutionists, it means a "modification
of an organism or its parts that makes it more fit for existence
under the conditions of its environment". The theory of evolution
claims that all life on earth is derived from a single organism
(a single common ancestor) that itself came into being as a result
of chance and the theory makes heavy use of this sense of the word
"adaptation" to support its case. Evolutionists hold that living
organisms change into new species by adapting to their environment.
We have discussed the invalidity of this claim, that mechanisms
of adaptation to natural conditions in living beings come into play
only under certain circumstances and it can never transform one
species into another in detail in our other books.55
(This is summed up in the appendix "Evolution Deceit" in this book)
The theory of evolution with its concept of "adaptation" is really
just a form of Lamarckism, a theory of organic evolution that holds
that environmental changes cause structural changes in animals and
plants that can be transmitted to offspring- a theory that has been
soundly and rightly dismissed by scientific circles.
Yet even though it has no scientific basis, the idea
of adaptation impresses most people and that is why we must address
this point here before going on. From belief in the adaptability
of life-forms, it is only a step to the idea that life could have
developed on other planets as well as it did once on Earth. The
possibility of little green creatures living on Pluto who might
work up a slight sweat when the temperature soared to 238°C, who
breathe helium instead of oxygen, and who drink sulfuric acid instead
of water somehow tickles people's fancy, especially people whose
fancies have been richly nourished by the products of Hollywood
But these are only such stuff as dreams (and Hollywood
movies) are made of however and evolutionists who are better informed
about biology and biochemistry do not even attempt to defend such
notions. They know quite well that life exists only if necessary
conditions and elements are available. If they really believe in
them at all, the partisans of the little green men (or other alien
life-forms) are those who blindly adhere to the theory of evolution
and are ignorant of even the basics of biology and biochemistry
and who, in their ignorance, come up with preposterous scenarios.
So in understanding the error in the concept of adaptation,
the first thing that we need to note is that life can only exist
if certain essential conditions and elements are present. The only
model of life that is based on scientific criteria is that of carbon-based
life and scientists are in agreement that there is no other form
of life to be found anywhere elsewhere in the universe.
Carbon is the sixth element in the periodic table. This
atom is the basis of life on earth because all organic molecules
(such as nucleic acids, amino acids, proteins, fats, and sugars)
are formed by the combination of carbon with other elements in various
ways. Carbon forms millions of different types of proteins by combining
with hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen etc. No other elements can take
the place of carbon. As we shall see in the sections ahead, no element
but carbon has the ability to form the many different kinds of chemical
bonds on which life depends.
Consequently if life is going to exist
on any planet anywhere in the universe it is going to have to
There are a number of conditions that are absolutely essential in
order for carbon-based life to exist. For example, carbon-based
organic compounds (like proteins) can exist only within a certain
range of temperatures. They start to dissociate over 120°C and are
irrecoverably damaged if they are frozen below -20°C. But it is
not only temperature that plays a vital role in determining the
allowable limits of suitable conditions for carbon-based life to
exist: so too do the type and amount of light, the strength of gravity,
the composition of the atmosphere, and the strength of the magnetic
field. Earth provides precisely such conditions as are needed to
make life possible. If even one of conditions were to be changed,
if average temperatures surpassed 120°C for example, there would
be no life on Earth.
Therefore our little green creatures who might work up
a slight sweat when the temperature soars to 238°C, who breathe
helium instead of oxygen, and who drink sulfuric acid instead of
water are not going to exist anywhere because carbon-based life-forms
cannot survive under such conditions and carbon-based life-forms
are the only kind there is. Life can only exist in an environment
within limits and under conditions that are deliberately designed
for life. That is true of life in general and of human beings in
Earth is such a deliberately-designed environment.
Temperature and atmosphere are the
first essential factors for life on Earth. The Blue Planet has both
a temperature that is livable and an atmosphere that is breathable
for living things, especially for such complex living things as human
beings. These two extremely different factors however have come into
being as a result of conditions that turn out to be ideal for both.
The Temperature of the World
One of these is the distance between the earth and the
sun. Earth could not be a home for life if were as near the sun
as Venus is or as far from it as Jupiter: carbon-based molecules
can only survive between the limits of 120 and –20°C and Earth is
the only planet whose average temperatures fall within those limits.
When one considers the universe as a whole, coming across
a range of temperatures as narrow as this is quite a difficult task
because temperatures in the universe vary from the millions of degrees
of the hottest stars to absolute zero (-273°C). In such a vast range
of temperatures, the thermal interval that allows life to exist
is slim indeed; but the planet Earth has it.
Unlike the other 63 major planets
and satellites in our solar system, the planet Earth is the
only one possessing an atmosphere, an ambient temperature, and
a surface suitable for life. Although liquid water, a fundamental
requirement for life, is found nowhere else in the solar system,
three-fourths of the earth's surface is covered with it.
The American geologists Frank Press
and Raymond Siever draw attention to the average temperatures prevailing
on Earth. They note that "life as we know it is possible over a
very narrow temperature interval. This interval is perhaps 1 or
2 percent of the range between a temperature of absolute zero and
the surface temperature of the Sun." 57
The maintenance of this thermal range is also related
to the amount of heat that the sun radiates as well as to the distance
between the earth and the sun. According to calculations, a reduction
of just 10% in the sun's radiant energy would result in the earth
surface's being covered by layers of ice many meters thick and that
if it were to increase by a little, all living things would be scorched
Not only must the average temperature be ideal: the available
heat must also be distributed fairly equally over the whole planet.
A number of special precautions have been taken to ensure that this
in fact happens.
The earth's axis is inclined 23° 27'to the plane of the
ecliptic. This inclination prevents overheating of the atmosphere
in the regions between the poles and the equator, causing them to
become more temperate. If this inclination did not exist, the temperature
gradient between the poles and equator would be much higher than
it is and the temperate zones wouldn't be so temperate–or livable.
The rotational speed of Earth on its axes also helps
keep the thermal distribution in balance. The earth makes a complete
rotation once every 24 hours with the result that alternating periods
of daylight and darkness are fairly short.
Many completely different
factors such as the distance between Earth and Sun, the
planet's rotational speed, the inclination of its axes,
and the geographical features of the surface all combine
to ensure that our world is heated in just the right way
that life needs and that this heat is adequately distributed.
Because they are short, the thermal gradient between the light and
dark sides of the planet are quite modest. The importance of this
can be seen in the extreme example of Mercury, where a day lasts
longer than a year and where the difference between daytime and
nighttime temperatures is almost 1,000°C.
Geography also helps distribute heat equally over the
earth. There is a difference of about 100°C between the polar and
equatorial regions of Earth. If such a thermal gradient were to
exist over a completely level area, the result would be winds reaching
speeds as high as 1,000 kilometers an hour sweeping away everything
in their path. Instead, Earth is full of geographical barriers that
block the huge movements of air that such a thermal gradient would
otherwise cause. Those barriers are chains of mountains like the
one that stretches from the Pacific in the east to the Atlantic
in the west, beginning with the Himalayas in China and continuing
with the Taurus mountains in Anatolia and the Alps in Europe. At
sea, the excess heat in the equatorial regions is transferred north
and south thanks to the superior ability of the water to conduct
and dissipate heat.
At the same time, there are a number of auto-control
systems that help keep the atmospheric temperature in balance. For
example when a region heats up, the rate at which its water vaporizes
increases, causing clouds to form. These clouds reflect more light
back into space, preventing both the air and the surface below from
The Mass of the Earth and the Planet's
The size of Earth is no less important
for life than are its distance from the Sun, its rotational speed,
or geographical features. Looking at the planets we see a great range
of sizes: Mercury is less than a tenth the size of Earth while Jupiter
is 318 times bigger. Is the size of Earth as compared with other planets
"coincidental"? Or is it deliberate?
When we examine the dimensions of Earth we can easily
see that our planet was designed to be exactly as big as it is.
American geologists Frank Press and Raymond Siever comment on Earth's
Earth's size was just about right -not too small as to lose its
atmosphere because its gravity was too small to prevent gasses from
escaping into space, and not so large that its gravity would hold
on to too much atmosphere, including harmful gases.58
In addition to its mass, the
interior of Earth is also specially designed. Because of its core,
Earth has a strong magnetic field whose role in the preservation of
life is vital. According to Press and Siever:
The earth's interior is a gigantic
but delicately balanced heat engine fueled by radioactivity …Were
it running more slowly, geological activity would have proceeded at
a slower pace. Iron might not have melted and sunk to form the liquid
core, and the magnetic field would never have developed…if there had
been more radioactive fuel and a faster running engine, volcanic gas
and dust would have blotted out the Sun, the atmosphere would
have been oppressively dense, and the surface would have been racked
by daily earthquakes and volcanic explosions.59
At the center of the earth there's
a sort of heat-driven engine that is so perfectly adjusted that
it is strong enough to generate the planet's magnetic shield
yet not so strong as to engulf the crust above in lava.
The magnetic field these geologists talk about is of
great importance for life. This magnetic field originates from the
structure of Earth's core. The core consists of heavy elements like
iron and nickel that are capable of holding a magnetic charge. The
inner core is solid while the outer one is liquid. The two layers
of the core move around each other and this movement is what generates
Earth's magnetic field. Extending far beyond the surface, this field
protects Earth from the effects of detrimental radiation from outer
space. The radiation of stars other than the sun cannot travel through
this shield. The Van Allen Belt, whose magnetic lines extend ten
thousand miles from Earth, protects the globe from this deadly energy.
It is calculated that the plasma clouds trapped by the
Van Allen Belt sometimes attain energy levels 100 billion times
more powerful than that the atomic bomb released over Hiroshima.
Cosmic rays may be equally detrimental. The earth's magnetic field
however lets only 0.1% of that radiation through and that is absorbed
by the atmosphere. The electrical energy needed to create and maintain
such a magnetic field is nearly a billion amperes, as much as mankind
has generated throughout history.
If this protective shield did not exist, life would be
destroyed by harmful radiation from time to time and might not have
come into existence at all. But as Press and Siever point out, Earth's
core is exactly designed to keep the planet safe.
In other words, there is a special purpose as stated
in the Qur'an:
We made the sky a persevered and protected
roof yet still they turn away from Our Signs. (Surat al-Anbiya:
The Fitness of the Atmosphere
As we have seen, Earth's physical
features-–mass, structure, temperature and so on–are "just right for
life". Such features alone are not enough to allow life to exist on
Earth however. Another vital factor is the composition of the atmosphere.
We noted above how science-fiction movies sometimes mislead
people. One example of how they do this is how easily space travelers
and explorers come across planets with breathable atmospheres: they
seem to be lying all over the place. If we could explore the real
universe, we'd discover that this isn't true at all: the possibility
of another planet's having an atmosphere that we could breathe is
most unlikely. That's because the atmosphere of Earth is specially
designed to support life in a number of crucial ways.
The atmosphere of Earth is composed of 77% nitrogen, 21% oxygen,
and 1% carbon dioxide. Let's start with the most important gas:
oxygen. Oxygen is vitally important to life because it enters into
most of the chemical reactions that release the energy that all
complex life-forms require.
Carbon compounds react with oxygen. As a result of these
reactions, water, carbon dioxide, and energy are produced. Small
"bundles" of energy that are called ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
and are used in living cells are generated by these reactions. This
is why we constantly need oxygen to live and why we breathe to satisfy
interesting aspect of this business is that the percentage of oxygen
in the air we breathe is very precisely determined. Michael Denton
writes on this point:
your atmosphere contain more oxygen and still support life? No!
Oxygen is a very reactive element. Even the current percentage of
oxygen in the atmosphere, 21 percent, is close to the upper limit
of safety for life at ambient temperatures. The probability of a
forest fire being ignited increases by as much as 70 percent for
every 1 percent increase in the percentage of oxygen in the atmosphere.60
According to the British biochemist
Even a 5% increase in the amount
of oxygen in our planet's atmosphere would result in fires
that would destroy much of its forests.
25% very little of our present land vegetation could survive the
raging conflagrations which would destroy tropical rain forests
and arctic tundra alike... The present oxygen level is at a point
where risk and benefit nicely balance.61
That the proportion of oxygen in the atmosphere remains
at this precise value is the result of a marvelous "recycling" system:
Animals constantly consume oxygen and produce carbon dioxide, which,
for them, is not breathable. Plants do just the opposite: they take
in carbon dioxide, which they need to live, and release oxygen instead.
Thanks to this system, life goes on. Plants release millions of
tons of oxygen into the atmosphere every day.
Without the cooperation and balance of these two different groups
of living things, our planet would be unlivable. For example, if
living things only took in carbon dioxide and released oxygen, the
earth's atmosphere would support combustion much more easily than
it does and even a tiny spark could set off enormous fires. Similarly,
if both took in oxygen and released carbon dioxide, life would eventually
die out when all the oxygen had been used up.
In fact, the atmosphere is in a state of equilibrium
in which, as Lovelock says, risk and benefit are nicely balanced.
Another finely-tuned aspect of our atmosphere is its density, which
is ideally suited for us to breathe.
The Atmosphere and Respiration
We breathe every moment of our lives.
We continuously take the air into our lungs and let it out. We do
it so much that we might think of it as normal. In fact, respiration
is quite a complex process.
Our bodily systems are so perfectly designed that we
don't need to think about breathing. Our body estimates how much
oxygen it needs and arranges for the delivery of the right amount
whether we're walking, running, reading a book, or sleeping. The
reason breathing is so important to us is that the millions of reactions
that must constantly take place in our bodies to keep us alive all
Your ability to read this book is thanks to the millions
of cells in the retina of your eye constantly being supplied with
oxygen-derived energy. Similarly, all the tissues of our bodies
and the cells forming them get their energy from the "burning" of
carbon compounds in oxygen. The product of this burning–carbon dioxide–must
be discharged from the body. If the level of oxygen in your bloodstream
drops to low, the result is fainting; and if the absence of oxygen
persists for more than a few minutes, the result is death.
And that's why we breathe. When we inhale, oxygen floods
into about 300 million tiny chambers in our lungs. Capillary veins
attached to these chambers absorb the oxygen in a twinkling and
convey it first to heart and then to every other part of our body.
The cells of our body use this oxygen and release carbon dioxide
into the blood, which conveys it back to the lungs where it is expelled.
The whole thing takes less than half a second: "clean" oxygen comes
in and "dirty" carbon dioxide goes out.
You might be wondering why there are so many (300 million)
of those little chambers in the lungs. They're there to maximize
the surface area that is exposed to the air. They're carefully folded
up to occupy as little space as possible; if they were unfolded,
the result would be enough to cover a tennis court.
There is another point here that we need to keep in mind.
The chambers of the lungs and the capillaries connecting to them
are designed so small and perfectly in order to increase the rate
at which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged. But that perfect
design depends on other factors: the density, viscosity, and pressure
of air must all be right in order for the air to move properly in
and out of our lungs.
At sea level, air pressure is 760 mm of mercury and its
density is about 1 gram/liter. Again at sea level, its viscosity
is nearly 50 times that of water. You might think these numbers
unimportant but they are vital for our lives because, as Michael
overall composition and general character of the atmosphere–its
density, viscosity, and pressure, etc-–must be very similar to what
it is, particularly for air-breathing organisms.62
When we breathe, our lungs
use energy to overcome a force called "airway resistance". This force
is the result of the resistance of air to movement. Owing to the physical
properties of the atmosphere however, this resistance is weak enough
that our lungs can take air in and let it out with a minimum expenditure
of energy. If air resistance were higher, our lungs would be forced
to work harder to enable us to breathe. This can be explained by an
example. It easy to draw water into the needle of an injector but
drawing honey in is much more difficult. The reason is that honey
is denser than water and also more viscous.
If the density, viscosity, and pressure of air were higher, breathing
would be as difficult as drawing honey into a needle. Someone might
say "That's easy to fix. We'll just make the hole of the needle larger
to increase the rate of flow." But if we did that in the case of the
capillaries in the lungs, the result would be to reduce the size of
the area in contact with air, with the result that less oxygen and
carbon dioxide would be exchanged in the same amount of time and the
respiratory needs of the body would not be satisfied. In other words,
the individual values of air's density, viscosity and pressure must
all fall within certain limits in order for it to be breathable and
those of the air we breathe do exactly that.
Denton comments on this:
is clear that if either the viscosity or the density of air were
much greater, the airway resistance would be prohibitive and no
conceivable redesign of the respiratory system would be capable
of delivering sufficient oxygen to a metabolically active air-breathing
organism... By plotting all possible atmospheric pressures against
all possible oxygen contents, it becomes clear that there is only
one unique tiny area... where all the various conditions for life
are satisfied... It is surely of enormous significance that several
essential conditions are satisfied in this one tiny region in the
space of all possible atmospheres.63
The numerical values of the
atmosphere are not only necessary for us to breathe but are also essential
for our Blue Planet to stay blue. If sea-level atmospheric pressure
were much lower than its present value, the rate of water vaporization
would be much higher. Increased water in the atmosphere would have
a "greenhouse effect" trapping more heat and raising the average temperature
of the planet. On the other hand, if the pressure were much higher,
the rate of water vaporization would be less, turning large parts
of the planet into desert.
All these finely-tuned equilibriums indicate that our
atmosphere has been deliberately designed precisely so that life
on Earth can exist. This is the reality discovered by science and
it shows us again that the universe is not just an accidental jumble
of matter. Undoubtedly there is a Creator ruling the universe, shaping
matter as He wants it to be, and reigning over the galaxies, stars
and planets under His sovereignty.
That supreme power, as the Qur'an tells us, is Allah,
Lord of the whole universe.
And the Blue Planet on which we live is specially designed
and “smoothed out” by Allah for people as stated in the Qur'an.
(Surat an-Naziat 30) There are other verses revealing that Allah
has created Earth for mankind to live in:
It is Allah who made the earth a stable home
for you and the sky a dome, and formed you, giving you the best
of forms, and provided you with good and wholesome things.
That is Allah, your Lord. Blessed be Allah, the Lord of all the
worlds. (Surah Ghafir: 64)
It is He Who made the earth submissive to
you, so walk its broad trails and eat what it provides. The Resurrection
is to Him. (Surat al-Mulk: 15)
The things we have mentioned so
far are just a few of the delicate equilibriums that are essential
for life on Earth. Examining the earth, we can make the list of the
"essential factors for life" a long as we please. The American astronomer
Hugh Ross has made a list of his own:
The Equilibriums that Make Life Possible
- If stronger: atmosphere would retain too much
ammonia and methane
- If weaker: planet's atmosphere would lose too much water
Distance From Parent Star;
- if farther: planet would be too cool for a stable
- if closer: planet would be too warm for a stable water cycle
Thickness of crust;
- if thicker: too much oxygen would be transferred
from the atmosphere to the crust
- if thinner: volcanic and tectonic activity would be too great
-If longer: diurnal temperature differences would
be too great
-If shorter: atmospheric wind velocities would be too great
Gravitational interaction with moon;
- If greater: tidal effects on the oceans, atmosphere,
and rotational period would be too severe
- If less: orbital obliquity changes would cause climatic instabilities
- If stronger: electromagnetic storms would be
- If weaker: inadequate protection from hard stellar radiation
Albedo (Ratio of Reflected light to total
amount falling on surface);
- If greater: runaway ice age would develop
- If less: runaway greenhouse effect would develop
Oxygen to nitrogen ratio in the atmosphere;
- if larger: advanced life functions would
proceed too quickly
- if smaller: advanced life functions would proceed too slowly
Carbon dioxide and water vapour levels in
- if greater: runaway greenhouse effect would
- if less: greenhouse effect would be insufficient
Ozone level in Atmosphere;
- if greater: surface temperature would be too
- if less: surface temperatures would be too high; there would be
too much uv radiation at the surface
- if greater: too many life-forms would be destroyed
- if less: nutrients on ocean floors (from river runoff) would not
be recycled to the continents through tectonic uplift.64
These are just some of the "design decisions" that had
to be made in order for life to exist and survive. But even these
are enough to show that the earth did not come into being as a result
of chance nor was it formed as a result of a lucky chain of events.
These and a myriad other details reaffirm a plain and
simple truth: Allah and Allah alone created the universe, the stars,
planets, mountains, and seas perfectly, giving life to human beings
and other living things, and placing His creations under the control
of mankind. Allah and Allah alone, the source of mercy and might,
is powerful enough to create something from nothingness.
This perfect creation of Allah is described in the Qur'an
Are you stronger in structure or is heaven?
He built it. He raised its vault high and made it level. He darkened
its night and brought forth its morning light. After that He smoothed
out the earth and brought forth from it its water and its pastureland
and made the mountains firm for you and for your livestock to enjoy.
(Surat an-Nazi'at: 27-33)
54. F. Press, R. Siever, Earth,
New York: W. H. Freeman, 1986, p. 2
55. See. Harun Yahya, The Evolution Deceit: The Scientific
Collapse of Darwinism and Its Ideological Background, Istanbul, 1998.
56. Michael Denton, Nature's Destiny, p 106
57. F. Press, R. Siever, Earth, New York: W. H. Freeman,
1986, p 4
58. F. Press, R. Siever, Earth, New York: W. H. Freeman,
1986, p 4
59. F. Press, R. Siever, Earth, New York: W. H. Freeman,
1986, p 4
60. Michael Denton, Nature's Destiny, p.121
61. James J. Lovelock, Gaia, Oxford: Oxford University
Press, 1987, p.71
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