Step By Step To All-Out War
Until now, we have discussed the general
structure of the defence system, its organs, cells, and enemies.
In this chapter, we will explore the deadly warfare between our
defence system and enemy cells, and the wonderful defence our body
The brave battle fought by of our defence system is comprised
of three important stages:
1. Identification of the enemy, first action.
2. The attack of the real army, all-out war.
3. Retreat to a normal state.
The defence system has to clearly identify the enemy before it starts
the fight. This is because each engagement differs from the other
depending on the type of enemy. Moreover, if this piece of intelligence
is not properly handed on, our defence system may inadvertently
attack the body's own cells.
The phagocytes, known as the scavenger cells of the defence
system, take the first action. They fight hand-to-hand with the
enemy. They are just like infantrymen who fight with bayonets against
Sometimes, phagocytes cannot catch up with the increasing
numbers of the enemy, at which point big phagocytic cells, macrophages
cut in. We can liken the macrophage to cavalrymen cleaving their
way through the middle of the foe. At the same time, macrophages
secrete a fluid, which sets off a general alarm in the body to increase
the body temperature.
Macrophages have yet another important characteristic.
When a macrophage cell captures and engulfs a virus, it tears off
a special portion of the virus, which it carries on itself like
a flag. This serves as a sign for the other elements of the defence
system as well as an item of information.
Once the gathered intelligence is forwarded to the helper
T cells, by the help of which they identify the enemy, their first
task is to immediately alert the killer T cells, stimulating them
to multiply. Within a short period, the stimulated killer T cells
will become a formidable army. This is not the only function of
the helper T cells. They also ensure that more phagocytes arrive
at the battlefront while they transfer the gathered intelligence
relating to the enemy to the spleen and lymph nodes.
Once the lymph nodes receive this information, the B
cells, which have been waiting for their turn, are activated. (The
B cells are manufactured in the bone marrow and then migrate to
the lymph nodes to wait for their turn to be of service).
THE WAR BEGINS
As viruses start to invade the body,
some will be captured by the antigens with the assistance of
the macrophages and subsequently destroyed. Some of millions
of T helper cells travelling in the circulatory system have
the ability to "read" this specific antigen. These particular
T cells become active when they bind to the macrophages.
2. FORCES MULTIPLY
Once activated, helper T cells
begin to multiply. They then warn the killer T cells and B
cells, which are few in number and sensitive to the enemy
virus, to multiply. When the number of B cells increases,
the helper T cells send them a type of signal to initiate
the manufacturing of antibodies.
At this point, some viruses
have successfully penetrated the cells. The only place where
viruses can multiply is in the body cells. With the chemical
materials they secrete, killer T cells cause the death of
these cells by drilling through their membranes, and removing
the elements inside. Thus they prevent the virus in the cell
from reproducing. By holding directly on to the surface of
the virus, antibodies inactivate them and prevent them from
invading other cells. In conclusion, cells that are infected
are destroyed with the aid of chemical substances, which were
prepared prior to the attack.
AFTER THE WAR
After the battle is won, and
the disease has been eradicated, suppressor T cells stop the
whole offensive system. Memory T and B cells remain in the blood
and lymphatic system in order to become immediately activated
in case a virus of the same type is met.
The activated B cells go through a number of stages.
Every stimulated B cell begins to multiply. The multiplication process
continues until thousands of identical cells are formed. Then, the
B cells, which are ready for war, start to divide and are transformed
into plasma cells. Plasma cells also secrete antibodies, which will
be used as weapons during the fight with the enemy. As stated in
earlier chapters, B cells are capable of producing thousands of
antibodies in a second. These weapons are very handy. They are capable
enough to bind to the enemy first, and then to destroy the biological
structure of the enemy (antigen).
If the virus penetrates the cell, the antibodies cannot
capture the virus. At this point, the killer T cells come into play
again and, by identifying the viruses in the cell with the help
of MHC molecules, they kill the cell.
However, if the virus has been successfully camouflaged,
escaping even the notice of killer T cells, then "natural killer
cells", briefly called NKs, swing into action. These cells destroy
the cells which host viruses in them, and which are imperceptible
to other cells.
After the victory is won, suppressor T cells stop the
war. Although the war is over, it is never to be forgotten. Memory
cells have stored the enemy in their memory. Staying in the body
for years, these cells help the defence to be faster and more effective
if the same enemy is encountered again.
The heroes of this war have not received any military
training. The heroes of this war are not human beings able to reason.
The heroes of this war are cells so minuscule as to hardly
cover a full stop when they come together in millions.
Moreover, this amazing army does not engage in fighting alone. It
manufactures all the weapons it will use during the war; it makes
all war plans and strategies itself, and cleans up the battleground
after the war. If all these processes were left in the control of
man, and not cells, would we ever be able to handle such a feat
What if the War in the Body Were Left in
the Control of Humans Beings
People do not immediately realize that microbes
or viruses are invading their bodies. Only when the symptoms of their
illness surface do humans become aware of them. This is proof that
a virus, a bacterium, or a similar micro-organism has long ago settled
within their body. This means that the primary intervention has resulted
in failure. Such unchecked conditions could cause the disease to progress
considerably, resulting in irremediable dispositions. Even if the
person has been infected with a curable and relatively simple disease,
delayed response may result in a serious crisis, or even death.
Now, let us imagine that the coordination and control
of the elements of the defence system and the ensuing strategies
to be developed and implemented, the overseeing of the war itself
were all left to human beings. What sort of difficulties would we
Let us assume that the initial symptoms were effectively
diagnosed. When foreign cells enter the human body, immediately
the warrior cells must be manufactured and then sent to the area
of conflict. The B cells must immediately commence the production
of the weapon (antibody). How are we to determine the type and location
of these foreign cells? This is a significant point, as future treatment
depends on this initial stage. To do this, the only solution for
the person would be to have a medical check-up which covered all
the organs of his body down to every drop of his blood at the slightest
suspicion of invaders having entered the body. Otherwise, it would
be impossible to determine the type and location of the antigens.
The long time needed for such a process would undoubtedly cause
a serious delay in timely intervention. It is evident how troublesome
and distressful life would be for people if they had to go to the
doctor's to undergo such a check-up on the merest hint of infection.
Let us suppose that timely intervention was possible
and the type and location of antigens could be identified precisely.
Depending on the type of the enemy, first the phagocytes have to
be activated. How can phagocytes be directed to rush to the exact
location? What kind of a message would help them to locate the enemy
easily? Let us suppose that the impossible became the possible.
Then comes the time to learn whether the phagocytes have won the
war or not. Depending on the result, either the macrophages will
be launched or the war will be stopped. No doubt, the only possible
solution lies with visiting the doctor again and having a thorough
check-up. If the war has not been won, the secondary forces, that
is, the macrophages, must be sent to the area of conflict. Meanwhile,
the time spent on the check-up would work against us. Without losing
any time, the macrophages have to tear a piece off the enemy and
warn the helper T cells. The helper T cells will in turn warn the
killer T cells, thus initiating another struggle. These cells, too,
must be checked on as to whether they are successful or not - for
which, again, a doctor's help is needed - and then the NK cells
must be called in for assistance. After a final examination, it
will be determined if the defence system has been effective in defeating
If man were asked to control only his defence system
and nothing else, he would have to be involved in such a complicated
and difficult process. Even a simple common cold would require him
to go to the doctor's many times over, follow up the recovery course
of the cells with extremely advanced medical equipment, and direct
them as necessary. Even the slightest delay or a problem in the
course of the process would cause the illness to be further aggravated.
What if man were asked to form these cells, make them
recognize the enemy and manufacture the appropriate antibodies,
then teach and organize all the processes they would perform … Unquestionably,
such a life would be far more troublesome and distressful than the
aforementioned model. It would literally be impossible.
Allah has taken the burden of this process away from
humans, creating a faultless system to work in the most immaculate
and independent manner ever imaginable. Just like everything else
in the universe, our defence system, too, has obeyed its purpose
of creation to become an indispensable, critical element of life:
Hearkening to its Lord as it is
bound to do…(Surat al-Inshiqaq: 2)
We have explored in previous chapters how the defence
system distinguishes between friendly and hostile cells with the help
of the receptors. However, the building blocks of some hostile cells
are almost identical to those of certain tissues in the human body.
This represents a significant problem for the defence system, which
might conceivably attack some of its own tissues accidentally.
Under normal conditions, though, such a response never
happens in a healthy human body. The defence system never attacks
a molecule, cell, or tissue of its own. In medical terms this phenomenon
is referred to as "tolerance".
This constitutes an extremely important miracle. We can
clearly see that the defence system is fully capable of differentiating
between thousands of proteins. For example, the defence system must
distinguish the haemoglobin found in blood from the insulin secreted
by the pancreas and from the vitreous humour contained in the eye,
and indeed, from everything else in the human system. The defence
system knows that while it fights a merciless war against foreign
molecules, it must not harm any tissues belonging to the human body.
many years, researchers have tried to understand how the defence
system has learned to be tolerant towards its own tissues. Yet,
details concerning why the most important lymphocytes, namely, the
T and B cells, do not attack the human body have only been revealed
in the last 20 years. The tolerance process, only a small portion
of which mankind has been able to discover as the result of years
long research, has been in operation since the human being came
How then has the defence system possessed the ability
to distinguish the various different structures from each other?
Can this be the result of unconscious coincidences as the theory
of evolution suggests? It is certainly impossible for structures
made up of unconscious atoms to coincidentally acquire this selection
ability that requires such consciousness, information and intelligence.
When specially designed structures of lymphocytes enabling
them to make the right choise is investigated, it will be understood
how illogical and unreasonable the claim of evolutionists is.
A defence cell developed within the bone marrow or the
thymus would be killed or inactivated if it reacted to the products
of the body. A mature lymphocyte faces the same consequence in case
it attacks the body's own products. That is to say that any element
of the defence system likely to harm the body is either killed or
forced to commit suicide obeying the command it receives.
However, if a T cell is confronted by another body cell,
it does not attack but rather inactivates itself. Similarly, if
there is any substance in the body that carries antigen properties
which should not, however, be destroyed, the human body does not
produce any antibodies and so does not attack it.
If we consider the fact that our body contains around
1 trillion lymphocytes, we can appreciate the miraculous discipline
required to ensure that these cells only target enemy cells and
spare friendly cells.
The Protected Barrier
In essence, the embryo in a mother's womb should normally be considered
foreign matter by the host human body. Subsequently, when the embryo
is first formed, the body would immediately instigate a struggle
against it. The defence system would not allow such an 'enemy' to
develop. However, despite this negative scenario, the embryo is
not as vulnerable as we might assume. After it is formed, it succeeds
in fully developing over an extended period of 9 months, completely
protected against the intended attacks of the antibodies.
How then is this achieved?
There is a barrier surrounding the embryo specially created
to absorb only the nutrients in the blood. This barrier helps the
embryo to take up the necessary nutrients for its development, while
isolating it from the destructive effect of antibodies.
Otherwise, the antibodies would immediately attack the
embryo (considered as a foreign substance) and destroy it. The isolation
of the embryo from the antibodies with such a special protection
is one of the most perfect examples of creation in the mother's
Neither mutation, nor natural selection nor any other
so-called evolutionary mechanism could have incorporated such perfect
creation in the evolution tale. The miracle of creation is self-evident.
In the Qur'an, Allah states that He placed the embryo in a secure
Did We not create you from a base
fluid. then place it in a secure repository for a recognised term?
It is We who determine. What an excellent Determiner! (Surat al-Mursalat:
There are occasions when these cells fail to fulfill
their functions. However, it should never be forgotten that if Allah
had willed, this would not happen either. Such disorders are created
for a hidden cause for people to clearly comprehend how temporary
and incomplete the life of this world actually is. Were it not for
the existence of a variety of diseases and illnesses, humans would
be likely to forget how helpless they were against Allah Who created
They might fail to remember that no matter how advanced
technology is, their recovery, as well as their life, depend on
the will of Allah alone. They may continue to live as if they will
remain in good health forever, as if they will never meet death
and be called to account for their actions in the presence of Allah
on the Day of Judgment. They may live on without reflecting on the
plight of those who are sick, deprived and oppressed. Therefore,
they may fail to appreciate that their health is a blessing from
Allah and that they should live their lives in the most favorable
and productive way. People of this sort, however, hardly ever accept
these facts, which we have listed above. Illnesses make people accept
them in a flash. It is not until then that people start to think
about things that never occurred to them before, such as their helplessness
and incapacity against the power of Allah, the fact that technology,
which developed by the will of Allah, can again only be of any use
by His will; they think of those people in need, of death, and depending
on their illness, even the stage beyond death. Only then do people
appreciate their health.
Furthermore, they witness the undependability of the
life of this world, to which they were blindly devoted and committed
with all their existence; this causes them to re-assess whether
they have worked enough for the hereafter, their true abode.
Indeed, our true abode is not this world, but the hereafter.
Life in the hereafter is not limited by years, nor is its quality
dictated by such basic needs as sleeping, feeding, or cleaning,
or by negative factors such as diseases. The endless blessings in
heaven are stated in the following verse of the Qur'an:
They will remain there timelessly,
for ever, among everything their selves desire. (Surat al-Anbiya:
It is a pity that the majority of people do not appreciate
their health, or think of the fleeting nature of the life of this
world. And only if they fall ill do they pray to Allah. When, however,
they are restored to health and return to their daily lives, they
forget everything. In the Qur'an, Allah draws attention to this
characteristic of humans:
When harm touches people they call
on their Lord, repenting to Him. But then, when He gives them a
taste of His mercy, a group of them immediately associate others
with their Lord (Surat ar-Rum: 33)
Allah, Who knows the truth of things (al-Khabir), created
thousands of types of diseases, all of which lie in store for human
beings. There is no guarantee that one of them, maybe the most dangerous
one, will not infect you. Every miraculous organ and system in our
body is apt to wear down and fail to operate. As we have stated
earlier, if Allah had willed it so, none of this would happen and
no problems would occur in any of our organs and systems. It is
obvious that there is a message delivered to human beings in all
these happenings, that is the temporary nature of the life of this
Did We not create you from a base
fluid, then place it in a secure repository for a recognised term?
It is We who determine. What an excellent Determiner! (Surat al-Mursalat: