It is a Scientific Fact That the
World Comes into Existence in Our Brains
We acknowledge that all
the individual features of the world are experienced through our
sense organs. The information that reaches us through those organs
is converted into electrical signals, and the individual parts
of our brain analyze and process these signals. After this interpreting
process takes place inside our brain, we will, for example, see
a book, taste a strawberry, smell a flower, feel the texture of
a silk fabric or hear leaves shaking in the wind.
We have been taught that we are touching the cloth
outside of our body, reading a book that is 30 cm (1 ft) away
from us, smelling the trees that are far away from us, or hearing
the shaking of the leaves that are far above us. However, this
is all in our imagination. All of these things are happening within
At this point we encounter another surprising fact;
that there are, in fact, no colors, voices or visions within our
brain. All that can be found in our brains are electrical signals.
This is not a philosophical speculation. This is simply a scientific
description of the functions of our perceptions. In her book Mapping
The Mind, Rita Carter explains the way we perceive the world as
Each one [of the sense organs] is intricately adapted
to deal with its own type of stimulus: molecules, waves or vibrations.
But the answer does not lie here, because despite their wonderful
variety, each organ does essentially the same job: it translates
its particular type of stimulus into electrical pulses. A pulse
is a pulse is a pulse. It is not the colour red, or the first
notes of Beethoven's Fifth-it is a bit of electrical energy. Indeed,
rather than discriminating one type of sensory input from another,
the sense organs actually make them more alike.
We live our entire life within our brain. The people that
we see, the flowers we smell, the music we listen to, the
fruits we taste, the wetness we feel on our hand… All of
these form in our brains. In reality, neither colors, nor
sounds, nor images exist in our brain. The only things that
exist in the brain are electric signals. This means that
we live in a world formed by the electric signals in our
brain. This is not an opinion or a hypothesis, but the scientific
explanation of how we perceive the world.
All sensory stimuli, then enter the
brain in more or less undifferentiated form as a stream of electrical
pulses created by neurons firing, domino-fashion, along a certain
route. This is all that happens. There is no reverse transformer
that at some stage turns this electrical activity back into light
waves or molecules. What makes one stream into vision and another
into smell depends, rather, on which neurons are stimulated.1
In other words, all of our feelings and perceptions
about the world (smells, visions, tastes etc.) are comprised of
the same material, that is, electrical signals. Moreover, our
brain is what makes these signals meaningful for us, and interprets
these signals as senses of smell, taste, vision, sound or touch.
It is a stunning fact that the brain, which is made of wet meat,
can know which electrical signal should be interpreted as smell
and which one as vision, and can convert the same material into
different senses and feelings.
Let us now consider our sense organs, and how each
one perceives the world.
IT'S NOT OUR EYES THAT SEE, IT IS OUR BRAIN
Because of the indoctrination that we receive throughout
our lives, we imagine that we see the whole world with our eyes.
Eventually, we usually conclude that our eyes are the windows
that open up to the world. However, science shows us that we do
not see through our eyes. The millions of nerve cells inside the
eyes are responsible for sending a message to the brain, as if
down a cable, in order to make "seeing" happen. If we analyze
the information we learned in high school, it becomes easier for
us to understand the reality of vision.
The light reflecting off an object passes through the
lens of the eye and causes an upside-down image on the retina
at the back of the eyeball. After some chemical operations carried
out by retinal rods and cones, this vision becomes an electrical
impulse. This impulse is then sent through connections in the
nervous system to the back of the brain. The brain converts this
flow into a meaningful, three-dimensional vision.
|EVERYTHING WE SEE
AND OWN IS ACTUALLY AN IMAGE THAT IS FORMED IN OUR BRAINS
For example, when you watch children playing in a park,
you are not seeing the children and the park with your eyes, because
the image of this view forms not before your eyes, but at the
back of your brain.
Even though we have given a simple
explanation, in reality the physiology of vision is an extraordinary
operation. Without fail, light is converted into electrical signals,
and, subsequently, these electrical signals reveal a colorful,
shining, three-dimensional world. R. L. Gregory, in his book Eye
and Brain: The Psychology of Seeing, acknowledges this significant
fact, and explains this incredible structure:
We are given tiny distorted upside-down images in the
eyes, and we see separate solid objects in surrounding space.
From the patterns of simulation on the retinas we perceive the
world of objects, and this is nothing short of a miracle.2
A person watching a small child playing with a ball is actually
not seeing him with his or her eyes. Eyes are only responsible
for delivering light to the back of the eyes. When light
reaches the retina, an upside-down and two-dimensional view
of the child is formed on the retina. Subsequently this
view of the child is converted into an electric current,
which is then transmitted to the visual center at the back
of the brain, where the child's figure is seen perfectly
in three dimensions. Who then sees the child's figure in
three dimensions with perfect clarity at the back of the
brain? Clearly, the entity we are dealing with is the Soul,
which is a being beyond the brain.
All of these facts lead to the same conclusion. Throughout
our lives, we always assume that the world exists outside of us.
However, the world is within us. Although we believe that the
world lies outside us, it is in the smallest part of our brain.
For example, the CEO of a company might consider the company building,
his car in the parking lot, his house by the beach, his yacht,
and all the people who work for him, his lawyers, his family,
and his friends to be outside of his body. However, all of these
things are merely visions formed in his skull, in a tiny part
of his brain.
He is unaware of this fact and, even if he knew, would
not bother to think about it. If he stood proudly next to his
latest-model luxury car, and the wind blew a piece of dust or
a small object into his eye, he might gently scratch his itching,
open eye and notice that the "material things" he saw moved upside
down or to the sides. He might then realize that material things
seen in the environment are not stable.
|ALL THE THINGS WE
SEE AND OWN ARE ACTUALLY IMAGES THAT HAVE BEEN FORMED IN
When a person rubs his eye, he sees the image of his car
moving up and down. This is proof that the observer is seeing
not the actual car itself, but its image in his brain.
What this demonstrates is that every person throughout
his or her life witnesses everything inside their brain and cannot
reach the specific material objects that supposedly cause their
experiences. The images we see are copies in our brains of the
objects that we assume to exist outside of us. We can never know
to what extent these copies resemble the originals, or whether
or not the originals even exist.
Although German psychiatry professor Hoimar Von Ditfurth
is a materialist, he acknowledges this fact about scientific reality:
No matter how we put the argument, the result doesn't
change. What stands before us in full shape and what our eyes
view is not the "world". It is only its image, a resemblance,
a projection whose association with the original is open to discussion.3
For example, when you take a look at the room in which
you are sitting, what you see is not the room outside of you,
but a copy of the room that exists in your brain. You will never
be able to see the original room with your sense organs.
How can a bright and colorful image appear in
your dark brain?
There is another point that should not be neglected;
light cannot pass through the skull. The physical area in which
the brain is located is completely dark, and light cannot possibly
penetrate it. However, incredible as it may seem, it is possible
to observe a bright and colorful world in this total darkness.
Colorful natural beauty, bright sights, all the tones of the color
green, the colors of fruits, the designs of flowers, the brightness
of the sun, people walking on a busy road, fast cars in traffic,
clothes in a shopping mall-are all created in the dark brain.
IN THE DARKNESS OF
OUR BRAINS WE SEE A BRIGHT WORLD
The inside of a brain is completely
dark. Light does not reach the inside of the brain
Imagine a barbecue burning in front of you. You can
sit and watch the fire for a long time, but throughout this entire
time, your brain never deals with the original of light, brightness
or heat from the fire. Even when you feel its heat and see its
light, the inside of your brain remains dark and maintains a constant
temperature. It is a profound mystery that, in the darkness, the
electrical signals turn into colorful, bright visions. Anyone
who thinks deeply will be amazed by this wondrous occurrence.
"COPY IMAGES" THAT FORM IN THE BRAIN
As also seen in this comparison, despite
their dozens of years of efforts, people have not been able
to provide vision which has the same sharpness and high quality
as the vision of an eye. However, your eye, which is only
composed of protein, lipid and water, creates what they have
not succeeded by forming a very realistic image. This is such
a perfect sharpness that everyone thinks that the image he
or she sees is the original. They cannot realize that everything
they see actually forms in the brain. Even though they do
not see the original, they are convinced that they watch the
real picture, because the quality of the picture that forms
in the brain is perfect. The one who sees the picture is not
the proteins, molecules or atoms in the brain, but the soul
which God breathed from His Spirit to man.
Light is also composed in our brain
While discussing what science has discovered about
vision, we mentioned that the light we receive from the outside
gives rise to some movements of the eye cells, and these movements
form a pattern from which our visual experience emerges. However,
there is another point that we need to make: Light, as we perceive
it, does not reside outside of our brain. The light we know and
understand is also formed within our brain. What we call light
in the outside world, which is supposedly outside our brains,
consists of electromagnetic waves and particles of energy called
photons. When these electromagnetic waves or photons reach the
retina, light, as we experience it, begins to come into existence.
This is the way light is described in physical terms:
The term "light" is used for electromagnetic waves
and photons. The same term is used in physiology, as the feeling
experienced by a person when electromagnetic waves and photons
strike the retina of the eye. In both objective and subjective
terms, "light" is a form of energy coming into existence in the
eye of a person, which a person becomes aware of through the retina
by the effects of vision.4
Consequently, light comes into existence as a result
of the effects that some electromagnetic waves and particles cause
in us. In other words, there is no light outside our bodies which
creates the light we see in our brains. There is only energy.
And when this energy reaches us we see a colorful, bright, and
Colors also originate in our brains
Starting from the time, we are born, we deal with a
colorful environment and see a colorful world. However, there
isn't one single color in the universe. Colors are formed in our
brains. Outside there are only electromagnetic waves with different
amplitudes and frequencies. What reaches our brains is the energy
from those waves. We call this "light", although this is not the
light we know as bright and shiny. It is merely energy. When our
brains interpret this energy by measuring the different frequencies
of waves, we see "colors". In reality, the sea is not blue, the
grass is not green, the soil is not brown and fruits are not colorful.
They appear as they do because of the way we perceive them in
our brains. Daniel C. Dennett, who is known for his books about
the brain and consciousness, summarizes this universally accepted
The common wisdom is that modern science has removed
the color from the physical world, replacing it with colorless
electromagnetic radiation of various wavelengths.5
ALL COLORS ARE FORMED
IN OUR BRAINS THERE ARE NO COLORS IN THE OUTSIDE WORLD
There are no colors in the world outside. Colors are only
formed in the eyes and brain of the observer. Only energy
packets of various wavelengths exist in the external world.
It is our brains that transform this energy into colors.
In The Amazing Brain, R. Ornstein and R. F. Thompson
have stated the way colors are formed as follows.
'Color' as such does not exist in the world; it exists
only in the eye and brain of the beholder. Objects reflect many
different wavelengths of light, but these light waves themselves
have no color.6
||There is no light and no color outside
of our brains. Colors and light are formed in our brains.
||In the retina in the eye, there exist
three groups of cone cells, each of which react to different
wavelengths of light. The first of these groups is sensitive
to red light, the second is sensitive to blue light
and the third is sensitive to green light. Different
levels of stimulus to each of the three sets of cone
cells gives rise to our ability to see a world full
of color in millions of different tones.
In order to understand why this is so, we must analyze
how we see colors. The light from the sun reaches an object, and
every object reflects the light in waves of different frequencies.
This light of varying frequency reaches the eye. (Remember that
the term "light" used here actually refers to the electromagnetic
waves and photons, not the light which is formed in our brains.)
The perception of color starts in the cone cells of the retina.
In the retina, there are three groups of cone cells, each of which
reacts to different frequencies of light. The first group is sensitive
to red light, the second is sensitive to blue light, and the third
is sensitive to green light. With the different levels of stimulations
of these cone cells, millions of different colors are formed.
However, the light reaching the cone cells cannot form colors
by itself. As Jeremy Nathans of John Hopkins Medical University
explains, the cells in the eye do not form the colors:
All that a single cone can do is capture light and
tell you something about its intensity. It tells you nothing about
||Because of God's perfect creation,
we see electrical signals as a bright world, full of
color, made up of millions of shades of color, and we
enjoy what we see. This is an extraordinary miracle
that must be carefully considered.
The cone cells translate the information they get about
colors to electrical signals thanks to their pigments. The nerve
cells connected with these cells transmit these electrical signals
to a special area in the brain. The place where we see a world
full of color throughout our lives is this special area in the
This demonstrates that there are no colors or light
beyond our brains. There is only energy which moves in the form
of electromagnetic waves and particles. Both color and light exist
in our brains. We do not actually see a red rose as red simply
because it is red. Our brain's interpretation of the energy that
reaches our eye leads us to perceive that the rose is red.
In the picture shown at the right
side, the green area on the left hand side appears
to be dark while the green area on the right hand
side appears lighter. In fact, the tones of both greens,
as shown in the left are exactly the same. The red
and orange colors next to the green bands trick us
into thinking that the two green colors are of different
tones. This again points to the fact that we do not
see the original material world, we only see our interpretation
of it in our brain.
Color blindness is proof that colors are formed in
our brains. A small injury in the retina can lead to color blindness.
A person affected by color blindness is unable to differentiate
between red and green colors. Whether an external object has colors
or not is of no importance, because the reason why we see objects
colorful is not their being colorful. This leads us to the conclusion
that all of the qualities that we believe belong to the object
are not in the outside world, but in our brains. However, since
we will never be able to go beyond our perceptions and reach the
outside world, we will never be able to prove the existence of
materials and colors. The famous philosopher, Berkeley, acknowledges
this fact with the following words:
If the same things can be red and hot for some and
the contrary for others, this means that we are under the influence
of misconceptions and that "things" only exist in our brains.8
ALL SOUNDS ARE FORMED IN
OUR BRAINS THERE ARE NO SOUNDS IN THE OUTSIDE WORLD
We Hear All Types Of Sound In
The hearing process also operates in a similar manner
to the visual process. In other words, we hear sounds in our brains
in the same way that we see the view of the outside world in our
brains. The ear captures the sounds around us and delivers them
to the middle ear. The middle ear amplifies the sound vibrations
and delivers them to the inner ear. The inner ear transforms these
sound vibrations into electric signals, on the basis of their
frequency and intensity, and then transmits them to the brain.
These messages in the brain are then sent to the hearing center
where the sounds are interpreted. Therefore, the hearing process
takes place in the hearing center in essentially the same way
that the seeing process takes place in the seeing center.
The outer ear captures sound waves and delivers them to
the middle ear. The middle ear amplifies these sounds and
transmits them to the inner ear. The inner ear converts
these sounds into electric signals on the basis of their
intensity and frequency and then sends them to the brain.
Therefore, actual sounds do not exist outside our brains,
even though there are physical vibrations we call sound waves.
These sound waves are not transformed into sounds outside or inside
our ears, but rather inside our brains. As the visual process
is not performed by our eyes, neither do our ears perform the
hearing process. For example, when you are having a chat with
a friend, you observe the sight of your friend in your brain,
and hear his or her voice in your brain. As the view in your brain
is formed, you will have a deep feeling of three dimensions, and
your friend's voice is also heard with a similar feeling of depth.
For example, you could see your friend as being a long way from
you, or sitting behind you; accordingly you feel his voice as
if it is coming from him, from near you or from your back. However,
your friend's voice is not far away or behind you. It is in your
The extraordinariness about the real nature of the
sound you hear is not limited to this. The brain is actually both
lightproof and soundproof. Sound never in fact reaches the brain.
Therefore, despite the volume of the sounds you hear, the interior
of your brain is actually very quiet. However, you hear noise,
such as voices, very clearly in your brain. They are so clear
that a healthy person hears them without difficulties or distortions.
You hear the symphony of an orchestra in your soundproof brain;
you can hear all the sounds in a wide range of frequencies and
decibel from the sounds of the leaves to the sounds of jet planes.
When you go to a concert of your favorite singer, the deep and
loud noise that fills the whole stadium is formed in the deep
silence of your brain. When you sing by yourself loudly you hear
the sound in your brain. However, if you were able to record the
sound in your brain with a tape recorder at that moment, you would
hear only silence. This is an extraordinary fact. The electrical
signals that reach the brain are heard in your brain as sound,
for example the sound of a concert in a stadium filled with people.
PEOPLE PRESUME THE EXISTENCE OF A MATERIAL WORLD OUTSIDE
OF OUR BRAINS, LIGHT, SOUND AND COLORS DO NOT EXIST; ONLY
Although the fact that all
of our senses are formed inside our brains has been scientifically
proven, many people still claim that the originals of the
images we see exist outside our brains. However, they will
never be able to prove this claim. Additionally, although
they believe the material exists outside of their brains,
as mentioned before, light, sound or colors do not exist
outside of our brains. Light only exists outside in the
form of energy waves and packets of energy, and we only
become aware of light when it hits the retina. Similarly,
there is no sound. There are only energy waves. Sound only
forms when these energy waves reach our ears and are subsequently
transmitted to our brains. There is no color outside, either.
When we say "there is no color" people might think of a
view of black, white or gray. In fact, these are also colors.
In the world outside of our brains even the colors of black,
white and gray do not exist. Only energy waves in varying
strength and frequency exist, and these energy waves are
only converted into colors through the cells in the eye
and the brain.
||The brain is soundproof as well
as lightproof. Therefore, even if the noises we
hear are loud, the insides of our brains are very
quiet. However, in this silence, there is a consciousness
that can interpret electrical signals as a melody
that he or she loves, or as the voice of a friend
or the sound of the telephone ringing.
Quantum physics is another
branch of science which shows that claims for the existence
of matter are unjustified. The most important truth discovered
by quantum physics, which leaves materialists speechless,
is that matter is 99.9999999% empty. In his studies of physics
and psychology, Peter Russell often makes comments about
human consciousness. In an essay adapted from his book,
From Science To God, Russell explains this truth thusly:
Take, for example, our ideas
as to the nature of matter. For two thousand years it was
believed that atoms were tiny balls of solid matter-a model
clearly drawn from everyday experience. Then, as physicists
discovered that atoms were composed of more elementary,
subatomic, particles (electrons, protons, neutrons, and
suchlike), the model shifted to one of a central nucleus
surrounded by orbiting electrons-again a model based on
An atom may be small, a mere
billionth of an inch across, but these subatomic particles
are a hundred-thousand times smaller still. Imagine the
nucleus of an atom magnified to the size of a grain of rice.
The whole atom would then be the size of a football stadium,
and the electrons would be other grains of rice flying round
the stands. As the early twentieth-century British physicist
Sir Arthur Eddington put it, "matter is mostly ghostly empty
space"-99.9999999 percent empty space, to be a little more
With the advent of quantum
theory, it was found that even these minute subatomic particles
were themselves far from solid. In fact, they are not much
like matter at all-at least nothing like matter as we know
it. They can't be pinned down and measured precisely. They
are more like fuzzy clouds of potential existence, with
no definite location. Much of the time they seem more like
waves than particles. (Peter Russell, The Mystery of Consciousness
and the Meaning of Light, 12 Oct 2000,
We can thus see that, while
many claim that what they see in their brains exists outside
themselves, science shows us that beyond the confines of
our brain, there are only energy waves and energy packets.
Beyond our brain there is no light, no sound and no color.
Additionally, atoms and subatomic particles that form a
material are actually loose groups of energy. As a result,
although some people believe in the existence of material,
material is comprised of space.
In reality, God creates matter
through a vision with these qualities.
All Smells Occur In The Brain
If someone is asked how he senses the smells around
him, he would probably say "with my nose". However, this answer
is not the right one, even though most people would instantly
conclude that it was the truth. Gordon Shepherd, a professor of
neurology from Yale University, explains why this is incorrect;
"We think that we smell with our noses, [but] this is a little
like saying that we hear with our ear lobes."9
A person smelling roses in his or her garden does not, in
reality, smell the originals of the roses. What he or she
senses is an interpretation of electrical signals by his
or her brain. However, the smell seems so real that the
person would never understand that he or she is not smelling
the original rose, and many people therefore suppose that
they are smelling the real rose. This is a great miracle
created by God.
Our sense of smell works in a similar mechanism to
our other sense organs. In fact, the only function of the nose
is its ability to act as an intake channel for smell molecules.
Volatile molecules such as vanilla, or the scent of a rose, come
to receptors located on hairs in a part of the nose called the
epithelium and interact with them. The result of the interaction
of the smell molecules with the epithelium reaches the brain as
an electric signal. These electric signals are then perceived
as a scent by the brain. Thus, all smells which we interpret as
good or bad are merely perceptions generated in the brain after
the interaction with volatile molecules has been transduced into
electric signals. The fragrance of perfume, of a flower, of a
food which you like, of the sea-in short all smells you may or
may not like-are perceived in the brain. However, the smell molecules
never actually reach the brain. In our sense of smell, it is only
electrical signals which reach the brain, as happens with sound
Conseqently, a smell does not travel in any particular
direction, because all smells are perceived by the smell center
in the brain. For example, the smell of a cake does not come from
the oven, in the same way that the smell of the dish does not
come from the kitchen. Likewise, the smell of honeysuckle does
not come from the garden and the smell of the sea, some distance
away from you, does not come from the sea. All of these smells
are sensed at one point, in a related area of the brain. There
is no concept of right or left, front or back, outside of this
sense center. Although each of the senses seem to occur with different
effects, and may appear to be coming from different directions,
they all in fact occur within the brain. The smells which occur
in the smell
center of the brain are assumed to be the smells of outside materials.
However, the image of the rose is generated in the sight center
and the smell of a rose is generated in the smell center. If there
is a genuine smell outside, you can never reach the original of
George Berkeley, a philosopher who has realized the
importance of this truth, says "At the beginning, it was believed
that colors, odors, etc., 'really exist,' but subsequently such
views were renounced, and it was seen that they only exist in
dependence on our sensations."
It may be instructive to consider dreams in order to
understand that smell is only a sensation. When people dream,
in the same way that all images are seen very realistically, smells
are also perceived as if they were real. For example, a person
who goes to a restaurant in his dream may choose his dinner amid
the smells of the foods that are on the menu; someone who dreams
of going on a trip to the sea side senses the distinctive smell
of the sea, and someone who dreams of a daisy garden would experience,
in his dream, the pleasure of the magnificent scents. Likewise,
someone who dreams of going to a perfume shop and choosing a perfume
would be able to distinguish between the smells of the perfumes,
one by one. Everything in the dream is so realistic that when
the person wakes up, he or she might be surprised by this situation.
In fact, it is not necessary to examine dreams to understand
the subject. It is even sufficient to imagine one of the depictions
that were mentioned, such as the example of the daisy. If you
concentrate on the daisy, you can feel as if you are aware of
its scent, even though it isn't there. The scent is now occurring
in the brain. If you want to visualize your mother in your mind,
you can see her in your mind, even though she isn't there in front
of you; in the same way you can imagine the smell of the lily,
even though it isn't there.
ALL SMELLS TAKE PLACE WITHIN
OUR BRAIN THERE IS NO SMELL IN THE OUTSIDE WORLD
Michael Posner, a psychologist and Marcus Raichle,
a neurologist from Washington University comment on the issue
of how sight and other senses occur, even in the absence of an
Open your eyes, and a scene fills your view effortlessly;
close your eyes and think of that scene, and you can summon an
image of it, certainly not as vivid, solid, or complete as a scene
you see with your eyes, but still one that captures the scene's
essential characteristics. In both cases, an image of the scene
is formed in the mind. The image formed from actual visual experiences
is called a "percept" to distinguish it from an imagined image.
The percept is formed as the result of light hitting the retina
and sending signals that are further processed in the brain. But
how are we able to create an image when no light is hitting the
retina to send such signals?10
The purpose of the nose is to receive smell signals and
transmit them to the brain. The smell of soup, or a rose,
is sensed in the brain. However, a person can sense the
smell of the rose or soup in his dream, even in the absence
of any soup or roses. God forms such a convincing collection
of senses within the brain with the taste, smell, vision,
sense of touch and sound that it takes a lot of explanation
to demonstrate to people that all of these feelings occur
in the brain and that they are actually not dealing with
the originals of anything they see. This is the magnificent
knowledge of God.
A person can picture the face of his wife or imagine the
smell of a daisy in his brain with little concentration.
The question then is that who is seeing without the need
of an eye or smelling without the need of a nose things
that physically do not exist nearby? This being is the soul
of the person.
There is no need for an external source to form an
image in your mind. This same situation holds true for the sense
of smell. In the same way as you are aware of a smell which does
not really exist in your dreams or imagination, you cannot be
sure whether or not those objects, which you smell in real life,
exist outside you. Even if you assume that these objects exist
outside of you, you can never deal with the original objects.
All Tastes Occur In The Brain
The sense of taste can be explained in a manner similar
to those of the other sense organs. Tasting is caused by little
buds in the tongue and throat. The tongue can detect four different
tastes, bitter, sour, sweet and salty. Taste buds, after a chain
of processes, transform sensory
information into electrical signals and then transfer them to
the brain. Subsequently, those signals are perceived by the brain
as tastes. The taste that you experience when you eat a cake,
yogurt, a lemon or a fruit is, in reality, a process that interprets
electrical signals in the brain.
An image of a cake will be linked with the taste of
the sugar, all of which occurs in the brain and everything sensed
is related to the cake which you like so much. The taste that
you are conscious of after you have eaten your cake, with a full
appetite, is nothing other than an effect generated in your brain
caused by electrical signals. You are only aware of what your
brain interprets from the external stimuli. You can never reach
the original object; for example you cannot see, smell or taste
the actual chocolate itself. If the taste nerves in your brain
were cut off, it would be impossible for the taste of anything
you eat to reach your brain, and you would entirely lose your
sense of taste. The fact that the tastes of which you are aware
seem extraordinarily real should certainly not deceive you. This
is the scientific explanation of the matter.
ALL TASTES OCCUR WITHIN
The Sense Of Touch Also Occurs In The Brain
The sense of touch is one of the factors which prevents
people from being convinced of the aforementioned truth that the
senses of sight, hearing and taste occur within the brain. For
example, if you told someone that he sees a book within his brain,
he would, if he didn't think carefully, reply "I can't be seeing
the book in my brain-look, I'm touching it with my hand". Or,
if we said "we cannot know whether the original of this book exists
as a material object outside or not", again the same superficially
minded person might answer "no, look, I'm holding it with my hand
and I feel the hardness of it - that isn't a perception but an
existence which has material reality".
However, there is a fact that such people cannot understand,
or perhaps just ignore. The sense of touch also occurs in the
brain as much as do all the other senses. That is to say, when
you touch a material object, you sense whether it is hard, soft,
wet, sticky or silky in the brain. The effects that come from
your fingertips are transmitted to the brain as an electrical
signal and these signals are perceived in the brain as the sense
of touch. For instance, if you touch a rough surface, you can
never know whether the surface is, in reality, indeed a rough
surface, or how a rough surface actually feels. That is because
you can never touch the original of a rough surface. The knowledge
that you have about touching a surface is your brain's interpretation
of certain stimuli.
A person chatting to a close friend while drinking
a cup of tea immediately lets go of the cup when he burns his
hand on the hot cup. However, in reality, that person feels the
heat of the cup in his mind, not in his hand. The same person
visualizes the image of the cup of tea in his mind, and senses
the smell and taste of it in his mind. However, this man does
not realize that the tea he enjoys is actually a sensation within
his brain. He assumes that the glass exists outside of himself,
and talks to his friend, whose image occurs again within his brain.
In fact, this is an extraordinary case. The assumption that he
is touching the original glass and drinking the original tea,
which appears to be justified by his impression of the hardness
and warmth of the cup and the taste and smell of the tea, shows
the astonishing clarity and perfection of the senses which exist
within one's brain.
THE SENSE OF TOUCH
ALSO OCCURS WITHIN OUR BRAINS
The fact that you are feeling the book you are reading now
does not change the fact that the vision of the book occurs
within your brain. As with the appearance of the book, the
sense of touching the book also takes place in your brain.
This important truth, which needs careful consideration,
is expressed by twentieth century philosopher Bertrand Russell:
As to the sense of touch when we press the table with
our fingers, that is an electric disturbance on the electrons
and protons of our fingertips, produced, according to modern physics,
by the proximity of the electrons and protons in the table. If
the same disturbance in our finger-tips arose in any other way,
we should have the sensations, in spite of there being no table.11
The point that Russell makes here is extremely important.
In fact, if our fingertips are given a stimulus in a different
manner, we can sense entirely different feelings. However, as
it will be explained in detail in due course, today this can be
done by mechanical simulators. With the help of a special glove,
a person can feel the sensation of stroking a cat, shaking hands
with someone, washing his hands, or touching a hard material,
even though none of these things may be present. In reality, of
course, none of these sensations represent occurrences in the
real world. This is further evidence that all the sensations felt
by a human being are formed within the mind.