and Target Location Systems
Echolocation of Bats
Bats are very interesting creatures. The most intriguing
of their abilities is their extraordinary faculty of navigation.
The echolocative ability of bats was discovered through
a series of experiments conducted by scientists. Let us take a closer
look at these experiments in order to unveil the extraordinary design
of these creatures:26
In the first of these experiments, a bat was left in
a completely dark room. On one corner of the same room, a fly was
placed as a prey for the bat. From then on, everything taking place
in the room was monitored with night vision cameras. As the fly
started to take into the air, the bat, from the other corner of
the room, swiftly moved directly to where the fly was and captured
it. Through this experiment, it was concluded that the bats had
a very sharp sense of perception even in complete darkness. However,
was this perception of the bat due to the sense of hearing? Or,
was it because it had night vision?
The largest bat colony on earth, with a population reaching
50 million, lives in America. Freetails ride 60 mph (95 km/h),
and fly as high as 10,000 feet (3050 metres). It is so large
that it can be easily observed by airport radar.28
It is discovered that bats wander in
many different ways once they leave their cave. However, they
always fly back to it on a straight route from wherever they
are. It is still not clear how they are able to navigate the
return journey to the cave.
In order to answer these questions, a second experiment
was carried out. In a corner of the same room a group of caterpillars
were placed and covered under a sheet of newspaper. Once released,
the bat did not lose any time in lifting the newspaper sheet and
eating the caterpillars. This proved that the navigational faculty
of the bat has no relationship with the sense of vision.
Scientists continued with their experiments on bats:
a new experiment was conducted in a long corridor, on one side of
which was a bat and on the other a group of butterflies. In addition,
a series of partition walls were installed perpendicular to the
sidewalls. In each partition, there was a single hole just big enough
for the bat to fly through. These holes, however, were located in
different spot on each partition. That is, the bat had to zigzag
its way through them.
Scientist started their observations as soon as the bat
was released into the pitch darkness of the corridor. When the bat
came to the first partition it located the hole easily and passed
it. The same was observed at all partitions: the bat appeared not
only to know where the partition was but also where exactly the
hole was. After going through the last hole, the bat filled its
stomach with its catch.
Absolutely stunned by what they observed,
the scientists decided to conduct one last experiment in order to
understand the sensitivity of the bat's perception. The goal this
time was to determine the bat's perceptual limits more clearly.
Again, a long tunnel was prepared and steel wires of 3/128-inch
(0.6 mm) diametre were hung from ceiling to floor and placed randomly
throughout. Much to the observers' astonishment, the bat completed
its journey without tripping over a single obstacle. This flight
showed that the bat is able to detect obstacles of as little as
3/128-inch (0.6 mm) thickness. The research that followed revealed
that the bat's incredible perceptual faculty is linked to their
echolocation system. Bats radiate high frequency sounds in order
to detect objects around them. The reflection of these sounds, which
are inaudible to humans, enables the bat to get a "map" of its environment.27
That is, the bat's perception of a fly is made possible by the sounds
reflected back to the bat from the fly. An echolocating bat registers
each outgoing sound pulse and compares the originals to returning
echoes. The time lapsed between generating the outgoing sound and
receiving an incoming echo provides an accurate assessment of a
target's distance from the bat. For example, in the experiment where
the bat caught the caterpillar on the floor, the bat perceived the
caterpillar and the shape of the room by emitting high pitch sounds
and detecting the reflected signals. The floor reflected the sounds;
hence, the bat determined its distance from the floor. On the contrary,
the caterpillar was about 3/16-inch (0.5 cm) to 3/8-inch (1 cm)
closer to the bat than was the ground. In addition, it made minute
moves and this, in turn, changed the reflected frequencies. This
way, a bat could detect the presence of a caterpillar on the floor.
It emitted about twenty thousand cycles in a second and could analyse
all the reflected sounds. Furthermore, while it carried out this
task, the bat itself travelled. Careful consideration of all these
facts clearly reveals the miraculous design in their creation.
Another stunning feature of bats' echolocation is the
fact that the hearing of bats has been created such that they cannot
hear any other sounds than their own. The spectrum of frequencies
audible to these creatures is very narrow, which would normally
create a great problem for the animal because of the Doppler Effect.
According to the Doppler Effect, if the source of sounds and the
receiver of sounds are both relatively stationary, the receiver
will detect the same frequency as the source emits. However, if
one or the other is moving, the detected frequency will be different
than the emitted frequency. In this case, the frequency of the reflected
sound could fall into the spectrum of frequencies inaudible to the
bat. The bat, therefore, faces the potential problem of not being
able to hear the echoes of its sounds from a fly that moves away.
Nevertheless, this is never a problem for the bat because
it adjusts the frequency of sounds that it sends towards moving
objects as if it knows about the Doppler Effect. For instance, it
sends the highest frequency sounds to a fly moving away so that
the reflections are not lost in the inaudible section of the sound
Experiments show that bats are able
to easily locate and fly through the passageways in the walls
even in complete darkness.
So, how does this adjustment take place?
In the brain of the bat, there are two kinds of neurons
(nerve cells) that control its sonar systems; one perceives the
reflected ultrasound and the other commands the muscles to produce
echolocation calls. These two neurons work in such complete synchrony
that a minute deviation in the reflected signals alerts the latter
and provide the frequency of the call to be in tune with the frequency
of the echo. Hence, the pitch of the bat's ultrasound changes in
accordance with its surroundings for maximum efficiency.
It is impossible to overlook the blow that this system
deals to the explanations of the theory of evolution through coincidence.
The sonar system of bats is extremely complex in nature and cannot
be explained by evolution through arbitrary mutations. The simultaneous
existence of all components of the system is vital for its functionality.
The bat has not only to release high pitch sounds but also to process
reflected signals and to manoeuvre and adjust its sonar squeals
all at the same time. Naturally, all of this cannot be explained
by coincidence and can only be a sure sign of how flawlessly Allah
created the bat.
Scientific research further reveals new examples of the
miracles of creation in bats. Through each new miraculous discovery,
the world of science attempts to understand how these systems work.
For example, new research on bats has had very interesting findings
in recent years.29 A few scientists, who wanted
to examine a group of bats living in a certain cave, installed transmitters
on some of the group members. Bats were observed to leave the cave
at night and feed outside until dawn. Researchers kept detailed
records of these journeys. They discovered that some bats travelled
as far as 30-45 miles (50-70 kilometres) from the cave. The most
astonishing finding was the return flight, which started shortly
before sunrise. All bats flew straight back to the cave from wherever
they were. How can bats know where they are and how far away they
are from their caves?
We do not yet have detailed knowledge of how they navigate
their return flight. Scientists do not believe the auditory system
to have a big impact on the return journey. Reminding us that bats
are completely blind to light, scientists expect to encounter another
surprising system. In short, science continues to discover new miracles
of creation in the bats.
The Electroshock Gun in the Electric Eel
The electric eels, whose lengths sometimes exceed 6.6
feet (2 metres), live in the Amazon. Two-thirds of the bodies of
these fish are covered with electrical organs, which have around
5,000 to 6,000 electroplaques. Thus, they can produce charges of
500 volts of electricity at about two amperes. This is roughly equivalent
to more power than a conventional TV set utilises.
The faculty of generation of electricity has been given
to these creatures for purposes both of defence and offence. The
fish uses this electricity to kill its predators by giving them
an electric shock. The electric shock generated by this fish is
enough to kill cattle from a distance of 6.6 feet (2 metres). The
electricity-generating mechanism of this fish is capable of engaging
as quickly as in two to three thousandth of a second.
Such an immense power in a creature is a tremendous miracle
of creation in itself. The system is quite complex and cannot possibly
be explained through "step by step" development. That is because
an electrical system without full functionality could not bring
the creature any advantage in terms of survival. In other words,
all components of the system must have been created perfectly at
the same time.
Fish that "See" By Means of an Electrical Field
Apart from fish armoured with potential electric charges,
there are other fish that generate low voltage signals of two to
three volts. If these fish do not use such weak signals for hunting
or defence, for what could they be possibly used?
Fish utilise these weak signals as a sensory organ. Allah
created a sensory system in the bodies of fish, which transmits
and receives these signals.30
The fish produces emissions of electricity in a specialised
organ on its tail. The electricity is emitted from thousands of
pores on the creature's back in the form of signals that momentarily
create an electrical force field surrounding it. Any object within
this field refracts it, by which the fish is informed of the size,
conductivity and movement of the object. On the body of fish, there
are electrical sensors that continuously detect the field just as
In short, these fish have a radar that transmits electrical
signals and interprets the alterations in the fields caused by objects
interrupting these signals around their bodies. When the complexity
of radar used by humans is considered, the wonderful creation in
the body of fish becomes clear.
Special Purpose Receptors
In the bodies of these fish, there are various types
of receptors. Ampullary receptors detect the low frequency electrical
signals given off by other swimming fish or insect larvae. These
receptors are so sensitive that they can even detect the magnetic
field of the earth as well as gather information on prey and predators.
The ampullary receptors cannot perceive the high frequency
signals transmitted by the fish. This is accomplished by a tubular
receptors. These sensors are sensitive to fish's own discharge and
they work to map the surroundings.
By means of this system these fish can communicate and
warn one another against any threats. They also exchange information
about species, age, size and gender.
Signals Describing Gender Differences
Each species of electric fish has a unique signature
signal. Furthermore, there can be differences among the individuals
of a species. However, the general structure remains unchanged.
Some details are particular to the individual. When a female runs
across a male fish it immediately senses it and behaves accordingly.
Signals Describing Age
Electrical signals also carry information on the age
of these fish. A newly hatched fish bears a different signature
from an adult. The signals of the newly hatched fish maintain their
characteristic until the fourteenth day after its birth, when they
change and become like the normal signals of an adult. This plays
a great role in regulating the complex relationships of motherhood
and fatherhood. A father can recognise his infant, and bring it
home to safety.
Living Activities Communicated Through Signals
Fish can also communicate information other than gender
and age. In all the species of electrical fish, frequency hikes
transmit alerting messages. For instance, a Mormydae normally transmits
electrical signals with a frequency of 10 Hz. i.e.10 vibrations
per second, which it can easily increase up to 100-120 Hz. A motionless
Mormydae warns opponents of an attack. This behaviour resembles
the tightening of fists before a fight. Most of the time, this warning
is powerful enough to discourage the opponent. After a fight, the
wounded party, in an electrical silence, stops sending signals for
about 30 minutes. The fish that calms down or leaves the fight usually
remains motionless. The purpose behind this is to make it harder
for the others to find them. Another purpose is to avoid hitting
surrounding objects since they become electrically blind due to
lack of signals.
Special System for Non-Confusion of Signals
An electric fish locates another one
by means of signals.
So then, what happens when an electric fish comes near
another producing the same signals? Does this not interfere with
both their radars? Interference would be a normal consequence here.
However, they have been created with a natural defence mechanism
that prevents this confusion. Experts name this system "Jamming
Avoidance Response" or JAR for short. When the fish encounters another
at the same frequency, it changes its frequency. This way confusion
is avoided early and it, therefore, never reaches any further.
All of this confirms the extremely complex systems in
electrical fish. The origin of these systems cannot be fully explained
by evolution. Likewise, Darwin in his book, The Origin of Species,
admitted the impossibility of explaining these creatures by his
theory in a chapter called "Difficulties of the Theory".31
Since Darwin, the electrical fish have been shown to have much more
complex systems than he thought.
Just like all other forms of life, electric fish were
also created flawlessly by Allah as a demonstration for us of the
existence and infinite knowledge of Allah Who created them.
The fish that transmit electrical waves
communicate through these waves. Members of the same species
use similar signals. Due to their communal life, they change
frequencies in order to prevent confusion, which enables similar
but distinct signals to be distinguished.
An electric fish can detect the gender of another by means
SONAR INSIDE A DOLPHIN’S SKULL
dolphin can distinguish between two different metal coins
under water in complete darkness and up to 2 miles (3 kilometres)
away. Does it see that far? No, it does this without seeing.
It can make such accurate determinations by means of the perfect
design of an echolocation system inside its skull. It gathers
very detailed information on shape, size, speed and structure
of near objects.
It takes some time for a
dolphin to master the skills needed to use such a complicated
system. While an experienced adult dolphin can detect most
objects through a few signals, a juvenile has to experiment
Dolphins do not use their
echolocation just to detect their surroundings. Sometimes
they group during feeding and emit high-pitched sounds so
powerful that they dazzle their prey, which are then ready
to be picked up. An adult dolphin produces sounds inaudible
to humans (20,000 Hz. and above). The focusing of soundwaves
is done in several areas of the dolphin's head. The melon,
which is a fatty structure in the dolphin's forehead, serves
as an accaustical lens and focuses the clicks of the dolphin
into a narrow beam. Therefore, the dolphin can direct the
clicks at will by moving its head. It can direct these waves
at will by moving its head.
adult dolphin radiates sounds inaudible to humans (20,000
Hz. and above). These waves are released from the lobe,
called "melon", in front of their heads. It can direct
these waves at will by moving its head. The sonar waves
are immediately reflected when they encounter any obstacle.
Lower jaw acts as a receptor, which transmits the signals
back to the ear. Ear forwards the data to the brain,
which analyzes and interprets the meanings.
The clicks immediately echo
back when they hit any obstacle. The lower jaw acts as a receptor,
which transmits the signals back to the ear. On each side
of the lower jaw is a thin bony area, which is in contact
with a lipid material. Sound is conducted through this lipid
material to the auditory bullae, a large vesicle. Then the
ear forwards the data to the brain, which analyses and interprets
the meanings. A similar lipid material also exists in the
sonar of whales.
lipids (fatty compounds) bend the ultrasonic (sound waves
above our range of hearing) sound waves traveling through
them in different ways. The different lipids have to be arranged
in the right shape and sequence in order to focus the returning
sound waves. Each separate lipid is unique and different from
normal blubber lipids and is made by a complicated chemical
process that requires a number of different enzymes. This
sonar system in dolphins could not possibly have developed
gradually, as claimed by the theory of evolution. That is
because only by the time the lipids would have evolved to
their final place and shape, could the creature have made
use of this crucial system. In addition, support systems like
the lower jaw, the inner ear system and the analysis centre
in the brain would all have to be fully developed. Echolocation
clearly is an "irreducibly complex" system, which for it to
have evolved in phases is simply impossible. Hence, it is
obvious that the system is another flawless creation of Allah.
THE STORY OF A MOMENT'S COMMUNICATION
Everybody can remember a time when his or her eyes met
with an acquaintance's eyes and they greeted one another. Would
you believe that this communication of a brief moment has a long
Let's assume that on a certain afternoon two men are
situated apart from one another. In spite of their close friendship,
they have not yet recognised one another. One of these men, turning
his head in the direction of his friend, whom he has not yet recognised,
starts a chain of biochemical reactions: the light reflected from
the body of his friend enters the eye lens at a speed of ten trillion
photons (light particles) per second. Light travels through the
lens and the fluid that fills the eyeball before falling on the
retina. On the retina there are about hundred million cells called
"cones" and "rods". Rods differentiate light from dark and cones
|CORNEA AND IRIS
cornea, one of the 40 basic components of the eye, is
a transparent layer located at the very front of the
eye. It allows light through as perfectly as does window
glass. It is surely not a coincidence that this tissue,
found at nowhere else in the body, is situated just
at the right place, that is, the front surface of the
eye. Another important component of the eye is the iris,
which gives the eye its colour. Located right behind
the cornea, it regulates the amount of light admitted
into the eye by contracting or expanding the pupil -
the circular opening in the middle. In bright light,
it immediately contracts. In dim light, it enlarges
to allow more light to enter the eye. A similar system
has been adapted as a basis for the design of cameras
in order to
adjust the amount of light intake, but it is nowhere
near as successful as the eye.
The human eye functions through
the harmonious working of about forty different components.
In the absence of even one of these components would
make the eye useless. For instance, in the absence of
even tear gland alone, the eye would eventually dry
out and cease to function. This system, which is irreducible
to simplicity, can never be explained by "gradual development"
as is claimed by evolutionists. This shows that the
eye emerged in a complete and perfect form, which means
that it was created.
Depending on the external objects, varying light waves
fall on different places on the retina. Let's think about the moment
the person in our assumed situation sees his friend. Some features
on his friend's face cast different intensities of light on his
retina e.g. darker facial features such as eyebrows would reflect
light at much lower intensities. Neighbouring cells on the retina,
however, receive stronger intensities of light reflected from the
forehead of his friend. All of his friend's facial features cast
waves of various intensities on the retina of his eye.
What kind of stimuli do these light waves provoke?
The answer to this question is, indeed, very complicated.
Nevertheless, the answer has to be examined to fully appreciate
the extraordinary design of the eye.
The Chemistry of Seeing
When photons hit the cells of the retina, they activate
a chain reaction, rather like a domino effect. The first of these
domino pieces is a molecule called "11-cis-retinal" that is sensitive
to photons. When struck by a photon, this molecule changes shape,
which in turn changes the shape of a protein called "rhodopsin"
to which it is tightly bound. Rhodopsin then takes a form that enables
it to stick to another resident protein in the cell called "transducin".
Prior to reacting with rhodopsin, tranducin is bound
to another molecule called GDP. When it connects with rhodopsin,
transducin releases the GDP molecule and is linked to a new molecule
called GTP. That is why the complex consisting of the two proteins
(rhodopsin and transducin) and a smaller chemical molecule (GTP)
is called "GTP-transducinrhodopsin".
The new GTP-transducinrhodopsin complex can now very
quickly bind to another protein resident in the cell called "phosphodiesterase".
This enables the phosphodiesterase protein to cut yet another molecule
resident in the cell, called cGMP. Since this process takes place
in the millions of proteins in the cell, the cGMP concentration
is suddenly reduced.
How does all this help with sight? The last element of
this chain reaction supplies the answer. The fall in the cGMP amount
affects the ion channels in the cell. The so-called ion channel
is a structure composed of proteins that regulate the number of
sodium ions within the cell. Under normal conditions, the ion channel
allows sodium ions to flow into the cell, while another molecule
disposes of the excess ions to maintain a balance. When the number
of cGMP molecules falls, so does the number of sodium ions. This
leads to an imbalance of charge across the membrane, which stimulates
the nerve cells connected to these cells, forming what we refer
to as an "electrical impulse". Nerves carry the impulses to the
brain and "seeing" happens there.
In brief, a single photon hits a single cell and, through
a series of chain reactions, the cell produces an electrical impulse.
This stimulus is modulated by the energy of the photon, that is,
the brightness of light. Another fascinating fact is that all of
the processes described so far happen in no more than one thousandth
of a second. Other specialised proteins within the cells convert
elements such as 11-cis-retinal, rhodopsin and transducin back to
their original states. The eye is under a constant shower of photons,
and the chain reactions within the eye's sensitive cells enable
it to percieve each one of these photons.32
The process of sight is actually a great deal more complicated
than the outline presented here would indicate. However, even this
brief overview is sufficient to demonstrate the extraordinary nature
of the system. There is such a complicated, finely calculated design
inside the eye that chemical reactions in the eye resemble the domino
shows in the Guinness Book of World Records. In these shows, tens
of thousands of domino pieces are so strategically placed that tipping
the first piece activates the entire system. In some areas of the
domino chain, many apparatuses are installed to start a new sequences
of reactions, e.g. a winch carrying a piece to another location
and dropping it exactly at the place necessary for a further sequence
Of course, nobody thinks that these pieces have been
"coincidentally" brought to their precise locations by winds, quakes
or floods. It is obvious to everyone that each piece has been placed
with great attention and precision. The chain reaction in the human
eye reminds us that it is nonsense to even entertain the thought
of the word "coincidence". The system is composed of a number of
different pieces assembled together in very delicate balances and
is a clear sign of "design". The eye is created flawlessly.
Biochemist Michael Behe comments on the chemistry of
the eye and the theory of evolution in his book Darwin's Black Box:
Now that the black box of vision has been opened, it
is no longer enough for an evolutionary explanation of that power
to consider only the anatomical structures of whole eyes, as Darwin
did in the nineteenth century (and as popularizers of evolution
continue to do today). Each of the anatomical steps and structures
that Darwin thought were so simple actually involves staggeringly
complicated biochemical processes that can not be papered over with
What has been explained so far is the first contact of
photons, reflected off a friend's body, with a man's eye. The retinal
cells produce electrical signals through complicated chemical processes
as described above. In these signals there exists such detail that
the face of the man's friend in the example, his body, hair colour
and even a minute mark on his face have been encoded. Now the signal
has to be carried to the brain.
Nerve cells (neurons) stimulated by retinal molecules
show a chemical reaction as well. When a neuron is stimulated, protein
molecules on its surface change shape. This blocks the movement
of the positively charged sodium atoms. The change in the movement
of the electrically charged atoms creates a voltage differential
within the cell, which results in an electrical signal. The signal
arrives at the tip of the nerve cell after travelling a distance
shorter than a centimetre. However, there is a gap between two nerve
cells and the electrical signal has to cross this gap, which presents
a problem. Certain special chemicals between the two neurons carry
the signal. The message is carried this way for about a quarter
to a fortieth of a millimetre. The electrical impulse is conducted
from one nerve cell to the next until it reaches the brain.
These special signals are taken to the visual cortex
in the brain. The visual cortex is composed of many regions, one
on top of the other, about 1/10 inch (2.5 mm) in thickness and 145
square feet (13.5 square metres) in area. Each one of these regions
includes about seventeen million neurons. The 4th region receives
the incoming signal first. After a preliminary analysis, it forwards
the data to neurons in other regions. In any phase, any neuron can
receive a signal from any other neuron.
This way, the man's picture forms in the visual cortex
of the brain. However, the image now needs to be compared to the
memory cells, which is also done very smoothly. Not a single detail
is overlooked. Furthermore, if the friend's perceived face looks
slightly more pale than normal then the brain activates the thought,
"why is my friend's face so pale today?"
That's how two separate miracles happen within a period
of time less than a second, which we refer to as "seeing" and "recognising".
The input that arrives in hundreds of millions of light
particles reaches the mind of the person, is processed, compared
to the memory and enables the man to recognise his friend.
The auricle is designed
to collect and focus sounds into the auditory canal. The inside
surface of the auditory canal is covered with cells and hairs
that secrete a thicle waxy product to protect the ear against
external dirt. At the end of the ear canal towards the start
of the middle ear is the eardrum. Beyond the eardrum there
are three small bones called the hammer, anvil and stirrup.
The eustachian tube functions to balance air pressure in the
middle ear. At the end of the middle ear is the cochlea that
has an extremely sensitive hearing mechanism and is filled
with a special fluid.
A greeting follows recognition. A person deduces the
reaction to be given to acquaintances from within the memory cells
in less than a second. For example, he determines that he needs
to say "greetings" upon which the brain cells controlling facial
muscles will command the move that we know as a "smile". This command
is similarly transferred through nerve cells and triggers a series
of other complicated processes.
Simultaneously, another command is given to the vocal
cords in the throat, tongue and the lower jaw and the "greetings"
sound is produced by the muscle movements. Upon release of the sound,
air molecules start travelling towards the man to whom the greeting
is sent. The auricle gathers these sound waves, which travel at
approximately twenty feet (six metres) per one fiftieth of a second.
"It is He who has
created hearing, sight and hearts for you. What little thanks
you show!" (Surat al - Muminun: 78)
THE TRAVELLING OF THE
SOUND FROM EAR TO BRAIN
The ear is such a complex
wonder of design that it alone nullifies the explanations
of the theory of evolution in regards to a creation based
on "coincidence". The hearing process in the ear is made possible
by a completely irreducibly complex system. Sound waves are
first collected by the auricle (1) and then hit the eardrum
(2). This sets the bones in the middle ear (3) vibrating.
Thus sound waves are translated into mechanical vibrations,
which vibrate the so-called "oval window" (4), which in turn
sets the fluid inside the cochlea (5) in motion. Here, the
mechanical vibrations are transformed into nerve impulses
which travel to the brain through the vestibular nerves (6).
There is an extremely complex
mechanism inside the cochlea. The cochlea (enlarged figure
in the middle) has some canals (7), which are filled with
fluid. The cochlear canal (8) contains the "organ of corti"
(9) (enlarged figure on far right), which is the sense organ
of hearing. This organ is composed of "hair cells" (10). The
vibrations in the fluid of the cochlea are transmitted to
these cells through the basilar membrane (11), on which the
organ of corti is situated. There are two types of hair cells,
inner hair cells (12a) and outer hair cells (12b). Depending
on the frequencies of the incoming sound, these hair cells
vibrate differently which makes it possible for us to distinguish
the different sounds we hear.
Outer hair cells (13) convert
detected sound vibrations into electrical impulses and conduct
them to the vestibular nerve (14). Then the information from
both ears meet in the superior olivary complex (15). The organs
involved in the auditory pathway are as follows: Inferior
colliculus (16), medial geniculate body (17), and finally
the auditory cortex (18).34
The blue line inside the
brain shows the route for high pitches and the red for low
pitches. Both cochleas in our ears send signals to both hemispheres
of the brain.
As is clear, the system enabling
us to hear is comprised of different structures that have
been carefully designed in the minutest detail. This system
could not have come into existence "step by step", because
the lack of the smallest detail would render the entire system
useless. It is, therefore, very obvious that the ear is another
example of flawless creation.
The vibrating air inside both ears of that person rapidly
travels to his middle ear. The eardrum, 0.30 inch (7.6 millimetre)
in diametre, starts vibrating as well. This vibration is then transferred
to the three bones in the middle ear, where they are converted into
mechanical vibrations that travel to the inner ear. They then create
waves in a special fluid inside a snail shell-like structure called
Inside the cochlea, various tones of sound are distinguished.
There are many strings of varying thickness inside the cochlea just
as in the musical instrument, the harp. The sounds of the man's
friend literally play their harmonies on this harp. The sound of
"greetings" starts from a low pitch and rises. First, the thicker
cords are rattled and then the thinner ones. Finally, tens of thousands
of little bar-shaped objects transfer their vibrations to the auditory
The three bones in the middle ear function
as a bridge between the eardrum and the inner ear. These bones,
which are connected to one another by joints, amplify sound
waves, which are then transmitted to the inner ear. The pressure
wave that is created by the contact of the stirrup with the
membrane of the oval window travels inside the fluid of the
cochlea. The sensors triggered by the fluid start the "hearing"
Now the sound "greetings" becomes an electrical signal,
which quickly travels to the brain through the auditory nerves.
This journey inside the nerves continues until reaching the hearing
centre in the brain. As a result, in the person's brain, the majority
of the trillions of neurons become busy evaluating the visual and
audio data gathered. This way, the person receives and perceives
his friend's greeting. Now he returns the greeting. The act of speaking
is realised through perfect synchronisation of hundreds of muscles
within a minute portion of a second: the thought that is designed
in the brain as a response is formulated into language. The brain's
language centre, known as Broca's area, sends signals to all the
In order to facilitate speech, not only do the
vocal cords, nose, lungs and air passages have to work in
harmony, but also the muscle systems that support these organs.
Sounds created during speech are produced by air passing through
the vocal cords.
First, the lung provides "hot air". Hot air is the raw
material of speech. The primary function of this mechanism is the
inhalation of oxygen-rich air into the lungs. Air is taken in through
the nose, and it travels down the trachea into the lungs. The oxygen
in the air is absorbed by the blood in the lungs. The waste matter
of blood, carbon dioxide, is given out. The air, at this point,
becomes ready to leave the lungs.
The air returning from the lungs passes through the vocal
cords in the throat. These cords are like tiny curtains, which can
be "drawn" by the action of the small cartilages to which they are
attached. Before speech, the vocal cords are in an open position.
During speech they are brought together and caused to vibrate by
the exhaled air passing through them. This determines the pitch
of an individual's voice: the tenser the cords, the higher the pitch.
The air is vocalised by passing through the cords and
reaches to the surface via the nose and mouth. The person's mouth
and nose structure adds personal properties unique to him. The tongue
draws near to and away from the palate and the lips take various
shapes. Throughout these processes, many muscles work at great speed.35
The person's friend compares the sound he hears to others
in his memory. By comparing, he can immediately tell if it is a
familiar sound. Therefore, both parties recognise and greet each
Vocal cords are comprised of flexible cartilages
tied to muscles on the skeleton. When the muscles are at rest,
the cords are open (left). The cords close during speech (above).
The tenser the cords, the higher the pitch.
All the above takes place during two friends noticing
and greeting one another. All of these extraordinary processes happen
at incredible speeds with stunning precision, of which we are not
even aware. We see, hear and speak so very easily as if it is a
very simple thing. However, the systems and processes that make
them possible are so unimaginably complex.
This complex system is full of examples of unparalleled
design that the theory of evolution cannot explain. The origins
of vision, hearing and thinking cannot be explained by the trust
of evolutionists in "coincidences". On the contrary, it is obvious
that all of them have been created and given to us by our Creator.
While the human cannot even understand the working mechanism of
systems that enable him to see, hear and think, the infinite wisdom
and power of Allah Who created all these from nothing is apparently
In Qur'an, Allah invites humans to ponder this and to
Allah brought you out of your mothers' wombs knowing
nothing at all, and gave you hearing, sight and hearts so that perhaps
you would show thanks. (Surat an-Nahl: 78)
Another verse states:
It is He Who has created hearing, sight and hearts
for you. What little thanks you show! (Surat al-Muminun: 78)
26. J. A. Summer, Maria Torres,
Scientific Research about Bats, Boston: National Academic Press, September
1996, pp. 192-195.
27. Donald Griffin, Animal Engineering, San Francisco,
The Rockefeller University - W.H. Freeman Com., pp. 72-75.
28. Merlin D. Tuttle, "Saving North America’s Beleaguered
Bats", National Geographic, August 1995, p. 40.
29. J. A. Summer, Maria Torres, Scientific Research
about Bats, pp. 192-195.
30. For details on this system refer to: W. M. Westby,
"Les poissons électriques se parlent par décharges ", Science et Vie,
No. 798, March 1984.
31. Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species, The Modern
Library, New York, pp. 124-153
32. Michael Behe, Darwin's Black Box, New York: Free
Press, 1996, pp. 18-21.
33. Michael Behe, Darwin's Black Box, p. 22.
34. Jean Michael Bader, "Le Gène de L’Oreille Absolue",
Science et Vie, Issue 885, June 1991, pages 50-51.
35. Marshall Cavendish, The Illustrated Encyclopaedia
of The Human Body, London, Marshall Cavendish Books Limited, 1984,