Design and Creation
A designer designs models by means of sketching on blank
paper. Everything that the designer has seen up to that point constitutes
the base of the idea from which his current design is derived. That
is because every form and shape in nature is a design. No human
designer can design something that they have never seen or never
Let us examine the way that a design follows in the formation
of a new design: first, the designer determines the material and
purpose of the design. Then the designer determines the potential
user, the needs of the user and therefore the parametres of the
Among all career groups in the world, industrial product
designers are probably those who need the least material while working.
That is because besides hard work, a good design requires primarily
devising clever ideas or subsidiary details during the process.
At the beginning, a designer needs nothing more than a clean sheet
of paper and a pen. While forming his design, he of course reviews
and takes precedent examples as models.
No industrial design
can compete with nature. No robotic hand can match the flawlessly
functional creation of a human hand.
The designer sketches hundreds of different alternatives for months.
Then these ideas are reviewed and, from among them, the most functional
and aesthetic is selected for production, after which details of
feasible production are studied.
First, a scale model of the product is made, which transfers
two dimensional ideas into three dimensions. After further refinements,
an actual size model of the product can be constructed. All of these
processes may take years. During this time, the model is also experimented
with and tested for user friendliness.
A new design introduced into the market is naturally
first evaluated by its appearance by consumers. In general the primary
factor in the sales of a product is appearance, i.e. shape, colour,
etc. and second, functionality.
Therefore, the process from initial conception to production
is quite extensive. In fact, the Sole Owner of all designs is One
Who has power over all things. Allah creates all creatures flawlessly
through a single command: ”be”. This is in the verse:
The Originator of the heavens and earth. When He
decides on something, He just says to it, 'Be!' and it is. (Surat
The faculty of creating from nothing and without precedent
belongs to Allah alone. Humans just copy these examples. Furthermore,
the human designer is himself a wonderful creation. Allah created
creatures and humans from nothing and bestowed on humans the skills
For many things that we think are the result of human
design there are precedents in nature. The structures and technological
products that emerge after years of research had already been present
in nature for millions of years.
Aware of these facts, designers, architects and scientists
choose to follow the exemplary properties of Allah’s creations in
designing new products.
Insects and Robot Technology
It is not only architects who benefit from study of the
creation. The engineers who developed robot technologies examined
insects for inspiration. Robots constructed upon the model of insect
legs prove to stand with better equilibrium. When suction pads are
installed on the feet of these robots, they can climb walls just
like flies. A particular robot constructed by a Japanese corporation
can walk on the ceiling just like an insect. The corporation utilises
this robot to inspect under bridges by means of sensors attached
to its body.45
The American army has been known to be exploring micro
machines for a long time. According to Professor Johannes Smith,
a motor smaller than 0.039 inch (one millimetre) can drive a robot
the size of an ant. A robot such as this is under consideration
for use in a small army of ant-like robots in order to penetrate
behind enemy lines undetected and damage jet engines, radars and
computer terminals. Two of Japan’s largest industrial corporations,
Mitsubishi and Matsushita, have already taken the first steps in
collaborating on the subject. The outcome of this collaboration
is a minute robot weighing 0.015 ounce (0.42 gram) and walking 13
feet (4 metres) a minute.
DESIGN EXAMPLES IN INSECTS
From an Insect to a
Modern Train Station In 1987, French politicians commissioned
the architect Santiago Calatrava to design Lyon-Stolas, the
station for the TGV super fast train. They aimed at expressing
the structure of the station in a way which would make it
a glamorous, attractive and landmark symbol. Concrete columns
support this dinosaur rib-cage like structure, the inspiration
for which comes from an insect. Green and blue lights that
could easily be found on an insect’s shell highlight the structure.
Since the grand opening in July 1994, the station has been
recognised as a masterpiece.
Chitin: Perfect Cladding Material
Insects are the most populous creatures on earth, which
is largely because their bodies are very resistant to many adverse
conditions. One of the factors in their resistance is the chitin
substance that forms their skeletons.
Chitin is extremely lightweight and thin. Insects never
face hardship maintaining it. Although it wraps the body externally,
it is sturdy enough to act as a skeleton. At the same time, it is
outstandingly flexible. It can be moved by means of muscles attached
to it from inside the body. This not only improves the rapid movement
of the insects but also decreases the impact of external blows.
It is waterproof because of a special exterior coating, which doesn’t
allow seepage of any body fluids.46 It is unaffected
by heat or radiation. Most of the time, its colour fits the surroundings
perfectly. Sometimes it signals warnings through bright colours.
What would happen if such a substance as chitin were
used in aircraft and space ships? In fact, this is the dream of
The Abdomen of the Desert
The abdomens of insects are
created to different designs depending on body structure and
activity. For example, the desert scorpion is covered with
highly sensitive organs called rake, with which scorpions
sense the hardness of the soil and determine the most appropriate
place to lay eggs.
Chitin, which forms the exoskeletons of many insects, is an
ideal material. It is strong, flexible and has insulation
The Ideal Shape of Red Blood Cells
Red Blood Cells
Red blood cells have the responsibility of carrying oxygen
in the blood. Oxygen is carried in the blood by haemoglobin which
is stored in the red blood cells. The larger the surface of this
cell, the more oxygen is carried. Since red blood cells have to
travel inside capillaries, their volume has to be minimal i.e. they
have to have the maximum surface with minimum volume. Hence, red
blood cells are specially designed to fit these criteria: they are
structured as flat, round and pressed in on both sides, and resemble
a wheel of Swiss cheese that is squeezed on both sides. This is
the shape that has the largest surface possible with the smallest
volume. Each red cell can carry 300 million haemoglobin molecules
due to this shape. In addition, red cells can pass through the narrowest
capillaries and tightest pores because of their flexibility.47
The Chromatic Eyes of Balloon Fish
fish reside in the warm seawaters of South-eastern Asia. When excess
amounts of light fall on them, the eyes of this fish act as a “chemical
sun-glasses”. The eyes of this 1 inch long (2.5 centimetre) fish
show properties similar to photochromic lenses, the colours of which
can become more or less intense depending on the strength of the
The system functions as follows: when the fish encounters
excessive light, the chromatic cells called “chromatophore”, which
are located around the transparent layer (cornea) of the eye, start
to release a yellowish dye (pigment). This pigment covers the eye
and acts as a filter reducing the intensity of light, which enables
the fish to see more accurately. In dark waters, this pigment disappears
and the eye receives the maximum possible amount of light.48
It is obvious that this system is a product of conscious
design. These cells releasing or clearing pigments is regulated
consciously and cannot be considered as a product of coincidence.
It is an expression of the perfection in the creation of Allah that
an irreducibly complex organ structure such as the eye should be
equipped with such a flawless chromatic system.
1. Design in the Rock Cactus
Some plants are created with special properties for defence
from plant- eating predators and rodents. Some of these plants
display properties miraculously similar to the surrounding environment
in which they grow. The best example of these similarities is
found in the South African rock cactus. Due to drought, the
surfaces of these plants are extremely wrinkled. When these
wrinkles are filled with dust, it becomes impossible even for
humans to distinguish these plants from rocks. If it were not
for this property, this plant would become an irresistible target
for insects and rodents. Another speciality of the rock cactus
is the fact that it blossoms with very brightly coloured flowers
at the end of the season of drought. Since the majority of creatures
are absent at that time, it reduces the risks brought about
by the flowers, which could nullify the camouflage.
nectar-containing violet-coloured bellflowers (Campanula persicifolia)
and non-nectar containing red-coloured orchid flowers (Cephalanthera
rubra) live together in the Mediterranean region. A species
of solitary bee (Chelostoma fuliginosum) first visits the method.
3.A Special Design for Plants: Leaves
Leaves are the respiratory organs of trees: they inhale oxygen
and exhale carbon dioxide. Upon close examination, leaf structure
appears extraordinarily thin, light and taut, but also very
sturdy. They are very resistant to rain and wind. A leaf is
covered with vessels that decrease in size from the largest
at the stem to the smallest, which are particularly visible
on the underside. This structure not only facilitates circulation
of substances but also functions as a skeleton ensuring rigidity.
MECHANIC SYSTEM DESIGN OF CREATURES
the design of moving systems is much more challenging to designers
than stationary structural systems. For instance, the problems encountered
in the design of a hand-drill are much more numerous than in that
of a jug. This is because the former is based on functionality but
the latter on form, and function oriented designs are more complicated.
Each component of design should serve a purpose for a specific goal.
Absence or malfunction of a single component renders the system
Designs with such errors are doomed to failure. Mechanical
systems designed by humans generally have more flaws than commonly
believed. Many of these systems have been designed by trial and
error. Although some defects are eliminated during the prototyping
phase prior to the product’s introduction to the market, not every
defect can be prevented.
The same argument cannot be made for mechanical systems
in nature. All the mechanical systems in all creatures are perfect.
Allah has created all creatures flawlessly. Let us take a closer
look at some of the examples of this perfect creation.
The Skull of Woodpecker
Woodpeckers feed on insects and larva, laid inside tree
trunks that they uncover by pecking. They carve their nests in living
healthy trees, which takes carving skills just as great as those
In the upper beak movement of a woodpecker,
when the beak hits the tree, the bird experiences a tremendous
impact. However, there are two mechanisms created to absorb
this impact. The first is the spongy connective tissue between
the skull and the beak, which softens the impact greatly.
The second mechanism is the tongue of the woodpecker. The
tongue circles around inside the skull to attach to the top
of the woodpecker's head. This arrangement of the tongue muscle
is a bit like a sling and may reduce the shock of each beak-to-tree
impact. Therefore, the impact (softened by the spongy tissue)
is almost reduced to nothing.
The great spotted woodpecker can make up to nine or ten
strikes per second. This number increases to fifteen to twenty in
smaller species of woodpeckers, one of which is the green woodpecker.
While the green woodpecker drills for a nest, the working
speed of its beak can exceed 62 mph (100 km/h). This does not affect
its brain in any way, which is the size of a cherry. The time lag
between two consecutive strikes is less then one thousandth of a
second. When it starts pecking, head and beak line up perfectly
on a straight line, but the smallest deviation could cause severe
ruptures in the brain.
The impact of this kind of hitting is in effect no different
from banging the head against a concrete wall. It takes extraordinary
design for the
bird’s brain not to be injured. The skull bones of the majority
of birds are joined together, and the beak functions with the motion
of the lower jaw. However, the beaks and skulls of woodpeckers have
been separated by a spongy tissue that absorbs the shocks of impact.
This flexible substance works better than shock-absorbers in automobiles.
The excellence of this material derives from its capability of absorbing
impacts of very short duration and then restoring itself its to
original condition immediately. This performance is maintained even
where nearly nine to ten hits are made per second. This material
is far superior to materials developed by modern technology. The
isolation of the beak from the skull by this extraordinary method
enables the compartment holding the woodpecker’s brain to move away
from the upper beak during hits, and this works as a secondary mechanism
for absorbing shocks.49
The Flea: the Ideal Design for
Fleas are created to jump extremely
high in comparison to their body size of few millimetres.
A flea can jump more than 100 times its own body height,
which is equivalent to a human jumping 660 feet (200 metres) high.
Furthermore, it can continue jumping like this without rest for
78 hours. In general, the flea does not fall onto its legs after
the fifth jump, it lands either on its back or head. However, it
neither becomes dizzy nor gets injured, which is due to the design
of its body.
The skeleton of the insect is not inside its body. It
is composed of a hard layer of a compound called sclerotin, which
wraps the entire body and is attached to the chitin. Numerous armoured
plates with limited movement form this outer skeleton, which absorbs
and eliminates the shock of jumping.
On the other hand, fleas do not have any blood vessels.
The inside of the entire body floats in a clear and fluid blood,
which acts as a cushioning around all the internal organs and makes
them immune to sudden pressure jumps.
Another creature as interesting as the
flea, is a species of minute insect living on the flea. These
microscopic creatures reside under the armoured plates of
The blood is cleaned by means of air vents scattered
throughout the body. This eliminates the need for a giant pump to
continually pump oxygen. Its heart is shaped like a tube and beats
at such a low rate that the jumps do not affect it at all.
Scientists discovered through research that the leg muscles
of fleas are not as strong as the jumps would really require. The
extraordinary performance enjoyed by fleas is made possible by a
kind of spring system that is added to its legs, which works because
of a rubberlike protein called "resilin", where the flea stores
mechanical energy. The outstanding property of this substance is
its ability to release in stretching up to 97% percent of the energy
that is stored in it. The most flexible material in the market today
has a ratio of 85%. This elastic material is located at the base
of the large hind legs of the animal in tiny pads. The flea takes
a few tenths of seconds to compress this material as it folds it
s legs in preparation for a jump. A ratchetlike structure holds
the leg folded until a muscle is relaxed and the spring-like structure
powers the jump through stored energy in the resilin which translates
into tremendous leaps.
The Acorn Weevil and its Drilling
An oak tree and acorns.
The acorn weevil lives on the acorns of an oak tree.
There is a moderately long snout on the head of this insect, which
is actually longer than its own body. At the end of this snout,
it has small but extremely sharp saw like teeth.
At other times, the insect holds this snout horizontal,
in line with its body, so that it does not interfere when it walks.
However, when it is on an acorn, it tilts this snout towards it.
Then the insect looks very much like a drilling machine. It leans
the saw-like teeth at the tip of its snout against the acorn. The
insect turns its head from one side to the other, moving the snout,
which starts to drill the acorn. The head of the insect is of a
perfect design for the job and displays an extraordinary level of
The acorn weevil which is created with a special "drilling
pipe", has an extraordinary reproduction system.
While drilling with its snout, it also feeds on the fruit
inside the acorn. However, it saves the largest portion for its
offspring. After drilling, the insect leaves a single egg in the
acorn, dropping it there through the hole. Inside the acorn, the
egg becomes a larva and starts eating it. The more the larva eats,
the more it grows; the more it grows, the more it eats.
This feeding continues until the acorn
falls from the branch, which is the signal for the larva that it
is time to leave. By means of its strong teeth, it enlarges the
hole that its mother made. The extremely fat larva gets out of the
acorn with a great deal of struggle. Now the goal for the larva
is to tunnel down about 10-12 inches (25-30 centimetres) under the
ground. There it goes through pupation and waits for one to five
years. When it becomes a full grown adult, it climbs up and starts
drilling acorns in turn. The time differential in the pupation period
depends on the new growth of the acorns on the tree.50
The interesting life cycle of the acorn weevil is another evidence
of the flawless creation of Allah, and it nullifies the arguments
of the theory of evolution. Each mechanism of the insect has been
designed within a certain plan. The drilling snout, the cutting
teeth on the tip, the flexible structure of the head which helps
drilling, cannot all be explained solely by coincidences and “natural
selection”. The long snout would have been nothing more than a great
burden and a disadvantage if it weren’t successfully used for drilling,
which is why it cannot be argued to have evolved “phase by phase”.
Larva of the acorn weevil.
On the other hand, the organs and instincts of the larva illustrate
the “irreducible complexity” of the process. The larva has to have
teeth powerful enough to cut its way out of the acorn, has to “know”
to dive deep into the ground and has to “wait” there patiently.
The acorn weevil uses its head during
drilling, just as is shown in the figure above.
Otherwise, the creature could not survive but would become extinct.
All of these cannot be explained by coincidence, but show that the
creation of these beings displays a superior wisdom.
Allah has created this creature with flawless organs
and instincts. He is "the Maker" of everything. (Surat al-Hashr:24)
The acorn becomes a nest for many other
creatures after being used by the acorn weevil. Numerous other
insects use acorns during their caterpillar phases and pupation.
The amazing structure of genlisea leaves: a cylindrical
stem (A) is located after an onion portion (B) followed
by another cylindrical stem (C), at the end of which is
a fissured mouth (D).
The trap of the genlisea
resembles animal intestines. The roots that branch out under
the ground are hollow swollen tubes. Water is pressured to
seep into these tubes. Through the slits in the tubes, there
is a flow towards the inside of the plant, which is triggered
by little interior hairs. Insects and other small organisms
float inside due to the flow of water. All the sections through
which the flow passes are covered with bristly hairs that
point downward. Along the way, the prey encounters a series
of digestive glands, which act like a valve and form a second
force pushing the insects into the plant. Finally, the captives
become the food of the genlisea.51
The Trap of the Bladderwort
The bladderwort is a sea
plant commonly referred to in the scientific world as Utricularia.
There are three kinds of
gland in the trap of the bladderwort: first, the spherical
glands located outside the trap; the others, the “four-pointed
gland” and “two-pointed gland” are inside. The plant uses
these glands as different phases of a trap.
First, the glands activate
the extensions attached to them, which start pumping the water
out. A very important void forms in the plant. At the mouth
is a trap door that keeps water from coming inside. The hairs
on this trap are very sensitive to touch. When an insect or
organism touches these hairs, the trap opens immediately.
Naturally, this creates a strong flow of water towards the
inside of the bladderwort. The trap closes behind the prey
in a flash. Immediately after this event, which takes place
within one thousandth of a second, the digestive glands start
releasing digestive secretions.52
The section of the bladderwort
and functioning of the trap: 1- The prey touches the
hairs of the trap, 2- The trap opens immediately and
the prey enters inside, 3 - The gate closes behind the
The Bacterial Flagellum
Some bacteria use a whip-like organ called a “flagellum”
to move about in a liquid environment. This organ is embedded in
to the cell membrane and enables the bacterium to move at will in
a chosen direction at a particular speed.
Sperm cells, too, use a flagellum in
order to move about.
Scientists have known about the flagellum for some time.
However, its structural details, which have only emerged over the
last decade or so, have come as a great surprise to them. It has
been discovered that the flagellum moves by means of a very complicated
“organic motor” and not by a simple vibratory mechanism as was earlier
The propeller-like engine is constructed on the same
mechanical principles as an electric motor. There are two main parts
to it: a moving part ("the rotor") and a stationary one ("the stator").
The bacterial flagellum is different from all other organic
systems that produce mechanical motion. The cell does not utilise
available energy stored as ATP molecules. Instead, it has a special
energy source: bacteria use energy from the flow of ions across
their outer cell membranes. The inner structure of the motor is
extremely complex. Approximately 240 distinct proteins go into constructing
the flagellum. Each one of these is carefully positioned. Scientists
have determined that these proteins carry the signals turning the
motor on or off, form joints to facilitate movements at the atomic
scale, and activate other proteins that connect the flagellum to
the cell membrane. The models constructed to summarise the working
of the system are enough to depict the complicated nature of the
The complicated structure of the bacterial flagellum is sufficient
all by itself to demolish the theory of evolution, since the flagellum
has an irreducibly complex structure. Even if one single molecule
in this fabulously complex structure were to disappear, or become
defective, the flagellum would neither work nor be of any use to
the bacterium. The flagellum must have been working perfectly from
the first moment of its existence. This fact again reveals the nonsense
in the theory of evolution's assertion of “step by step development”.
The bacterial flagellum is clear evidence that even in
supposedly "primitive" creatures, there is an extraordinary design.
As humanity becomes more deeply immersed in details, it becomes
increasingly obvious that the organisms scientists of the 19th century,
including Darwin, considered to be the simplest, are in fact just
as complex as any others. In other words, as the perfection of the
creation becomes clearer, the senselessness of the struggle to find
alternative explanations for the creation is much more obvious.
There are amazing designs even in the
creatures that evolutionists regard as “simple”. The bacterial
flagellum is one of countless examples. Bacteria travel in
water by moving this organ on their membrane. When the inner
details of this well-known organ were revealed, the scientific
world was extremely surprised to find that bacteria had an
extraordinarily complicated electric motor. The electric motor,
which is comprised of about fifty different molecular parts,
is a wonder of design as shown above.
Design in Dolphins
Dolphins and whales breathe using their lungs just like
other mammals, which means they cannot breathe in the water like
fish. This is why they regularly visit the surface. The blowhole
which is situated on top of their heads work for air intake. This
organ is designed in such a way that when the animal dives into
water, the opening closes automatically with a special cap in order
to prevent water from entering. The cap automatically opens again
when the dolphin surfaces.
A System that Facilitates Sleep
Dolphins fill 80-90% of their lungs with air every time
they breathe. However, in many humans this ratio is about 15%. The
breathing of dolphins is a conscious act and not a reflex as it
is with other land mammals.54
In other words, dolphins consciously decide to breathe
as we make the choice to walk. There is a system created to prevent
the death of the creature during its sleep under water. The sleeping
dolphin uses the right and left hemispheres of its brain alternatively
for periods of about fifteen minutes. While one hemisphere sleeps,
the dolphin uses the other to surface for air.
The snout of dolphin’s beak is another feature that improves
their swimming. The animal uses less energy in cutting through the
water and swimming at higher speeds. Modern ships, too, make use
of a bow like the dolphin’s snout, hydro-dynamically designed to
increase the speed of ships just like dolphins.
The dolphin has been created
with the body form that best fits its environment.
Social Life of Dolphins
Dolphins live in very large groups. For protection, females
and offspring are located in the centre of the group. The sick are
not left alone but are kept in the group until they die. The ties
of interdependence are formed from the first day a new offspring
joins the group.
Dolphin calves are born tail first. This way the infant
is provided with oxygen throughout delivery. When at last the head
is released, the newly born dolphin rushes for the surface for the
first gasp of air. Generally, during delivery another female accompanies
the mother giving birth.
Mothers start to nurse their young immediately after
birth. The new dolphin, lacking lips to suck, receives milk through
two sources coming out of a slit on the mother’s ventral surface.
When it taps gently on this section, the milk is sprayed out. The
young dolphin consumes dozens of quarts (litres) of milk every day.
50% of the milk is composed of fat (compared to 15% in cattle milk),
which promptly works towards building the skin layer necessary to
regulate body temperature. Other females also help the young dolphins
during rapid dives, by pushing them down. Newly born dolphins are
also taught how to hunt and use their echolocation sonar, which
is an educational process continuing for years. In some cases, young
dolphins may never leave a particular family member for up to thirty
The System Preventing the Bends
Dolphins can dive down to depths that cannot be matched
by humans. The recordholder in this category is a species of whale
that can dive down to 9900 feet (3000 metres) on a single breath.
Both dolphins and whales are created appropriately for these kinds
of dives. The tail flukes make diving and surfacing much easier.
aspect of the design for diving is in the lungs of these animals:
as the animal descends the weight of the water column above, i.e.
the pressure, increases. The pressure inside the lungs is increased
to balance the outside pressure. If the same pressure were to be
applied to human lungs, they would easily disintegrate. In order
to overcome this danger, there is a special defensive system lodged
in a dolphin’s body: the bronchi and air cells (alveoli) inside
the dolphin’s lungs are protected by rings of cartilage that are
Another example of the perfection of creation in the
bodies of dolphins is the system that prevents the bends. When divers
ascend to the surface too quickly, they face this danger. The reason
for the bends is the entrance of air directly into the blood and
formation of air bubbles in the arteries. These air bubbles can
cause death by preventing blood circulation. Whales and dolphins,
however, do not
face similar dangers, although they breathe using their lungs. This
is because they dive with lungs not full of air but empty. Since
there is no air in their lungs, they do not run the risk of getting
Nevertheless, this leads to the real question: if they
do not have any air in their lungs how do they not suffocate due
to lack of oxygen?
The answer to this question lies with the “myoglobin”
protein that is found in their muscle tissue in high proportions.
The myoglobin proteins have a high affinity for oxygen, so the oxygen
necessary for the creature is not stored in the lungs but directly
in the muscles. Dolphins and whales can swim without breathing for
extended periods, and can dive as deep as they like. Humans also
have myoglobin protein, but it cannot sustain the same conditions
due to its much smaller volume. This biochemical adjustment unique
to dolphins and whales is, of course, evidence of deliberate design.
Allah created sea mammals, like the rest of the animals, with body
structures best fitted to the conditions in which they live.
The Pump in a Giraffe
A giraffe, with its height nearly 16.5 feet (5 metres),
is one of the largest creatures. In order to survive, the animal
has to send blood to a brain located approximately 6.6 feet (2 metres)
above the heart. This requires an extraordinary heart structure.
Consequently, the heart of the giraffe is strong enough to pump
blood at a pressure of 350 mmHg.
Such a powerful system, which would normally kill a human,
is contained within a special chamber, and has been wrapped with
a web of capillaries in order to reduce the deadly affects.
In the section between the head and the heart there is
a U-shaped system, comprised of an ascending and descending vessel.
The blood flowing in vessels of opposite direction balances itself,
which saves the animal from dangerously high blood pressures that
can cause internal bleeding.
The portion below the heart, especially legs and feet,
needs special protection. The extra thickness of giraffe skin on
legs and feet prevents adverse affects of high blood pressure. In
addition, there are valves inside the vessels that help regulate
The biggest danger is when the animal lowers its head
to the ground in order to get a drink of water. The blood pressure,
which is normally high enough to cause internal bleeding, now increases
even more. However, there a measure has been taken against these
affects. A special fluid called cerebrospinal fluid, which bathes
the brain and the spinal column itself, produces a counterpressure
to prevent rupture or capillary leakage. In addition, there are
one-way check valves which close when the animal lowers its head.
These valves reduce the flow of blood significantly, and the giraffe
can safely drink and raise its head. As a caution against dangers
of high blood pressure, the vessels of the giraffe are very thick
and created in multiple layers.
The Design of Honeybees’ Defence Strategy
Giant hornets in Japan are perfect enemies for the honeybees
of Europe. 30 hornets attacking a hive can exterminate about 30,000
bees in three hours. But the honeybees are created with a perfect
When a hornet discovers a new bee colony, it communicates
the news to others by secreting a special smell. The same odour
is also detected by the honeybees, which start congregating at the
entrance of the beehive for defence. When a hornet draws near, approximately
500 honeybees immediately surround it. They start vibrating their
bodies and increase their body temperatures. This, to the wasp,
feels like being stuck in an oven and at the end of this the wasp
dies. In the heat sensitive photograph of such an attack, the temperature
of the white areas can reach 118°F (48°C). Such a high temperature
is bearable for honeybees but lethal to the hornets.55
Miracles of Reproduction in Frogs
Many suppose that frogs multiply through hatching eggs
and developing “tadpoles”. However, there are many other types of
frog reproduction of which some are quite surprising.
Frogs have been created with traits that enable them
to survive in a variety of environments. Therefore, they can live
in every continent apart from Antarctica; there are species of frogs
living in deserts, forests, meadows and the Himalayas and Andes,
where altitudes exceed 16,500 feet (5000 metres). The densest populations
are scattered throughout the tropical regions. Approximately forty
species of frogs have been identified within a 0.8 square mile (2
square kilometre) piece of rain forest.
some species of frogs, only males care for the newly born, whereas
in others only females do or both partners do. For example, males
of the “dart-poison frog” of Costa Rica keep watch, waiting for
the eggs to hatch, for up to 10-12 days. Through great efforts,
the newly born tadpoles climb and hold on to the back of the mother
so tightly that they appear to have been welded on. Then the mother
climbs onto a bromeliad in the forest. The flowers of this tree
are shaped like goblets pointing skyward, and are filled with water.
The mother releases the newly born frogs into these flowers, where
they grow safely.
Since there is no food in these waters, the mother frequently
lays unfertilised eggs in the flowers for the newly born frogs.
The tadpoles feed on these eggs, which are rich in protein and carbohydrates.56
The “gladiator frog” is another species that defends
the area in which are the eggs. The males of these frogs have been
created with pin-like extensions under their thumbs, with which
they rip the skin off an intruder male.
The male small African toad (Nectophyrne afra) constructs
nests out of mud, which are filled with water to form ponds, on
the coasts of lakes or slow flowing rivers. The frog makes a fragile
layer of film on the surface of the water to which the eggs attach
themselves. This way, the eggs stay on the surface of the water
in order to inhale oxygen. Since a minute vibration caused by another
frog or a dragonfly’s flying past can destroy this film and send
the eggs to the bottom of the water, where they would be left to
die without oxygen, the male frog guards the eggs. While waiting,
it kicks its feet in the water in order to increase oxygen flow
through the membranes of the eggs.
Another species, called the glass frog due to its transparency,
does not keep watch over its eggs. Allah inspires another method
in these frogs; they leave groups of eggs on the rocks and plants
of the tropical lakes or rivers. When the eggs hatch, the tadpoles
drop into the water.
Frogs leave their fertilised eggs in damp places. Out of these
eggs hatch tadpoles that have large heads and tails. In time,
the tadpoles develop arms and legs and the infants take on
the shape of frogs. Finally, development ends as the tails
All of these various conscious and self-sacrificing behavioural
patterns, displayed by different species of frogs as acts of defence
for the newly born tadpoles, demolish the fundamental assumptions
of Darwinism. The assertion of Darwinism that all creatures are
in an individual and selfish struggle for survival comes to an inevitable
dead end in the face of the efforts of a single frog to defend its
newly born offspring. Furthermore, the intelligent behaviour shown
by these creatures cannot be explained away as occurring through
coincidence as argued by Darwinism. These are clear signs that living
things have been created by Allah and are directed by the instincts
inspired in them. Allah states in Qur’an that there are clear proofs
in living things for all people:
And in your creation and all the creatures He has
spread about there are Signs for people with certainty. (Surat al-Jathiya:
Frogs Reproduced in the Stomach
The extraordinary reproduction method of a species of
frog called Rheobatrachus silus, is another example of the superb
design in the creation of Allah. Female Rheobatrachus frogs swallow
their eggs after fertilisation, not to eat them but to protect them.
The hatching tadpoles remain and grow in the stomach for the first
six weeks after hatching. How is it possible that they can remain
in their mother's stomach that long without being digested?
There is a fierce battle for territory between spiders and
frogs. However, spiders generally prefer to retreat when they
encounter these poisonous frogs, which are even capable of
easily killing human beings.
A flawless system has been created to enable them to
do so. First, the female ceases to feed for those six weeks, which
means the stomach is reserved solely for the tadpoles. However,
another danger is the regular release of hydrochloric acid and pepsin
in the stomach. These chemicals would normally quickly kill the
offspring. However, this is prevented by a very special measure.
The fluids in the stomach of the mother are neutralised by the hormonelike
substance prostaglandin E2, which is secreted first by the egg capsules
and then by the tadpoles. Hence, the offspring grow healthily, even
though they are swimming in a pool of acid.
How do the tadpoles feed inside the empty stomach? The
solution to this has been thought of, too. The eggs of this species
are significantly larger than those of others, as they contain a
yoke very rich in proteins, sufficient to feed the tadpoles for
six weeks. The time of birth is designed perfectly as well. The
oesophagus of the female frog dilates during birth, just like the
vagina of mammals during delivery. Once the young have emerged,
the oesophagus and the stomach both return to normal, and the female
starts feeding again.57
The miraculous reproductive system of Rheobatrachus silus
explicitly invalidates the theory of evolution, since this system
is irreducibly complex. Every step has to take place fully in order
for the frogs to survive. The mother has to swallow the eggs, and
has to stop feeding completely for 6 weeks. The eggs have to release
a hormonelike substance to neutralise stomach acids. The addition
of the extra protein-rich yolk to the egg is another necessity.
The widening of the female's oesophagus cannot be coincidental.
If all these things failed to happen in the requisite sequence,
the froglets would not survive and the species would face extinction.
The Rheobatrachus frog giving birth
from its mouth.
Therefore, this system cannot have developed step-by-step,
as asserted by the theory of evolution. The very first frog of the
Rheobatrachus silus species existed with this complete flawless
system. All of the creatures examined throughout this book prove
the same fact: there is a supreme design in creation encompassing
all nature. Allah created all living things with irreducible complexity,
in which His infinite power and knowledge are illustrated for those
who examine them. The flawless creation of Allah is depicted as
He is Allah - the Creator, the Maker, the Giver
of Form. To Him belong the Most Beautiful Names. Everything in the
heavens and earth glorifies Him. He is the Almighty, the All-Wise.
(Surat al-Hashr: 24)
THE BRAIN / COMPUTER
neuron cell contains units that are only responsible for transferring
information. A single brain can process work equivalent to
that of 4.5 million transistors on a modern microprocessor.
The millions becomes insignificant in comparison with ten
billion, highly capable neurons transmitting information in
the brain. In addition, there is not a single industrial product
that can imitate the faculties of taste and smell in the brain.
THE IMMUNE SYSTEM / ARMY
organisms are defended by roughly 200 billion white blood
cells. Just like soldiers, these blood cells have an intelligence
system, lethal weaponry and special battle strategies. However,
no other army on earth is as punctual, perfect and successful
as the immune system.
HORMONES / MAIL
in the body is in a state of communication. Many messages
are in the form of hormones composed of large molecules. There
is no receiver on the packages of messages carried by the
hormones that freely wander in the circulatory system and
among the neurons. However, the package always gets to its
place because the organs receiving the messages are equipped
with special sensors.
AND PERSPIRATION/ AIR CONDITIONING
movements contribute to warming up of the body in cold weather.
Muscles can provide up to 90% of body heat in this way. Perspiration,
on the other hand, functions as the ideal cooling mechanism
against overheating. These two balancing systems work together
to maintain a steady body temperature. This system works much
more swiftly and with more precision than any other air conditioning
CELL / ENGINE
cell is a very energy efficient engine. It consumes small
molecules called ATP for fuel. Its efficiency in burning this
fuel is much greater than any other engine known to mankind.
In addition, the cell simultaneously performs a diverse variety
of tasks, such as no manmade device can handle.
arm works like a lever. The supporting pivot is the elbow, about
which the muscles facilitate movement through contractions and
flexions. Excavators also work on the same principles. While
the excavator exerts the same force under all loads, the muscles
of the arm control the intensity of forces.
Greatest Design: Universe
There are unchangeable fundamental laws in the universe,
which affect all animate and inanimate beings alike. These laws
are proofs that illustrate the perfection in the creation of the
universe just as are the flawless creatures that live therein. Today,
these hints are presented to us as laws of physics as discovered
largely by physicists. The laws ordinarily accepted as “laws of
physics” are nothing but the evidence of the perfection in creation
of Allah. (For detailed information refer to: Harun Yahya, The Creation
of the Universe).
Let us give just a few examples of the perfection of
design in the universe.
For instance, let us examine one of a dozen crucial properties
of rainwater: the “viscosity of water”.
Different liquids have different degrees of velocity.
However, the viscosity of water is perfect for the use of all creatures.
If it was a little higher than it is, plants could not have used
it for transporting the nutrients vitally important for survival
within their capillary tubes.
the viscosity of water were lower than it is, the flow of rivers
would have been a great deal different, hence the mountain formations
would have changed, valleys and plateaus would not have formed,
and rocks could not have disintegrated to form soil.
Water also facilitates the circulation of the red blood
cells that defend our bodies against microbes and dangerous substances.
If water's viscosity were greater, the movement of these cells within
the vessels would have been totally impossible, the heart would
have been overwhelmed in pumping the blood and would possibly have
failed to obtain the energy necessary for this job.
Even these few examples sufficiently illustrate that
water is a fluid that has been especially created for living beings.
Allah, in reference to water, states in a verse:
It is He who sends down water from the sky. From
it you drink and from it come the shrubs among which you graze your
herds. And by it He makes crops grow for you and olives and dates
and grapes and fruit of every kind. There is certainly a Sign in
that for people who reflect. (Surat an-Nahl: 10-11)
Balance of Forces
What would happen if the gravitational force were greater
than it is today? Running or walking would be impossible. Humans
and animals would spend much more energy moving about, which would
diminish the energy resources of the earth. What if gravity were
less powerful? Light objects could not maintain their state of balance.
instance, dust particles picked up by breezes would float in the
air for long periods. The speed of raindrops would decrease, and
they possibly would evaporate before reaching the ground. Rivers
would flow more slowly and hence electricity would not be generated
at the same rate.
All this is rooted in the property of the gravitational
pull of masses. Newton’s law of gravitation states that the force
of the gravitational attraction between objects depends on their
masses and the distance between them. Hence, if the distance between
two stars is increased three times, the gravitational force is decreased
by a factor of nine, or if the distance is decreased to half, the
force of gravity is increased four times.
This law helps explain the current positions of the earth,
moon and planets. If the law of gravitation were different, for
example, if the gravitational force were increased as the distance
increased, the orbits of the planets would not be elliptical and
they would collapse into the sun. If it were weaker, the earth would
be set on a course steadily away from the sun. So, if the force
of gravity did not have precisely the value it does, the earth would
either collide with the sun or be lost in the depths of space.
What if Planck’s Constant were
We encounter different forms of energy all the time.
For instance, even the heat that we sense in front of the fire has
been created with intricate balances.
In physics, energy is assumed to radiate not as a wave
but in small particular amounts called “quanta”. In calculating
the radiant energy, a certain unchanging value called Planck’s Constant
is used. This number is generally small enough to be considered
negligible. This number is one of the fundamental and unchanging
indices in nature, which is approximately expressed as 6.626x10-34.
In any situation involving radiation, if the energy of a photon
is divided by its frequency the result will always equal this constant.
All forms of electromagnetic energy, i.e. heat, light, etc. are
governed by Planck’s Constant.
If this minute number were a different size, then the
heat we sense in front of a fire would have been much stronger.
Either, at one extreme, the smallest fire could have contained enough
energy to burn us up or at the other extreme, even a giant fireball
the size of the sun would not have been sufficient to warm the earth.
All forms of electromagnetic
energy, i.e. heat, light, etc. are governed by Planck’s Constant.
If this minute number were a
different size, then the heat we sense in front of a fire
would have been much stronger. Either, at one extreme, the
smallest fire could have contained enough energy to burn us
up or at the other extreme, even a giant fireball the size
of the sun would not have been sufficient to warm the earth.
Frictional forces are generally considered inconveniences,
as they are encountered especially while moving things in our daily
lives. However, what would the world be like if frictional forces
were completely eliminated? Pens and papers would slip out of our
hands and fall down from the table to the floor, tables would slide
to the corners of rooms, and in short all objects would fall and
roll until everything finally came to a stop at the lowest point.
In a frictionless world, all knots would untie, screws and nails
would come off, no cars could ever brake, while sounds would never
die but echoe endlessly.
All of these laws of physics are clear proofs that the
universe, just like all the creatures within it, is a product of
divine design. In fact, the laws of physics are nothing but human
explanations and descriptions of the divine order that Allah has
created. Allah has created the unchanging laws of order in the universe
and put them in the service of humans so that man will reflect upon
and understand the Sovereignty of Allah and give thanks for His
All products of technology
make use of friction in one form or the other. The engine
of a vehicle functions by help of friction.
One can continue giving countless examples in illustration
of the order in the creation of Allah. Every created thing since
the formation of the universe millions of years ago has been brought
into existence by nothing other than the Omniscience and Sovereignty
“He who created the seven
heavens in layers. You will not find any flaw in the creation of
the All-Merciful. Look again - do you see any gaps? Then look again
and again. Your sight will return to you dazzled and exhausted!”
(Surat al-Mulk: 3-4)
45. T.E. Akiowa & F.C. Schuster,
Wars and Technologies, Detroit: Anderson Bookhouse, 1997, p. 83.
46. Ali Demirsoy, Yasamin Temel Kurallari (Basic
Fundamentals of Life), p. 18-22.
47. Marshall Cavendish, The Illustrated Encyclopaedia
of The Human Body, pp. 50-51.
48. Bilim ve Teknik (Journal of Science and Technology),
49. Bilim ve Teknik Görsel Bilim ve Teknik Ansiklopedisi
(Encyclopedia of Science and Technology), p. 116.
50. Mark W. Moffett, "Life in a Nutshell", National
51. Bilim ve Teknik Görsel Bilim ve Teknik Ansiklopedisi
(Encyclopedia of Science and Technology), p. 2995
52. Stanley Taylor, "Life underwater" Botanic, Issue
83, February 1988, p. 24.
53. Michael Behe, Darwin's Black Box, New York: Free
Press, 1996, pp. 69-73.
54. Betty Mamane, "Le Surdoué du Grand Bleu", Science
et Vie Junior, August 1998, pp. 79-84.
55. "If Attacked, Japanese Bees Shake and Bake",
National Geographic, April 1996, page 2.
56. "Poison Dart Frogs - Lurid and Lethal", National
Geographic, May 1995, pp. 103-110.
57. Reproductive Strategies of Frogs, William E.
Duellman, Scientific American, July 1992, pp. 58-65