The Qur'an was sent down to the earth 14 centuries
ago by Allah. The Qur'an is not a book of science. It nonetheless
includes some scientific explanations within its religious context.
These explanations have never contradicted the findings of modern
science. On the contrary, certain facts that could only be discovered
with the technology of the 20th century were in fact revealed
in the Qur'an 14 centuries ago. This shows us that the Qur'an
is one of the most important proofs that proclaims the existence
AN OUTLOOK ON THE UNIVERSE
THROUGH THE EYES OF THE QUR'AN
In the light of the data obtained in the 20th century,
it has been discovered that the universe came into being suddenly
where it was previously non-existent. This theory is known as
the Big Bang theory and it holds that the outset of the universe
came about with this explosion.
We studied this theory in its historical context
backed up by scientific evidence in previous pages under the title
"From Non-being to Being". In this chapter, we will see how Allah
has declared to us some scientific facts about the creation of
the universe in the Qur'an.
There is very strong evidence supporting the Big
Bang theory. The expansion of the universe is one of them and
the most significant proof of this is the moving away of the galaxies
and the heavenly bodies from each other. To better understand,
the universe can be thought of as the surface of a balloon being
inflated. Just as the points on the surface of a balloon move
apart from each other as the balloon is inflated, so do the objects
in space move apart from each other as the universe keeps expanding.
At this point, let us refer to the relevant Qur'anic
verses. In one verse, the following is stated about the creation
of the universe:
And it is We who have constructed
the heaven with might, and verily, it is We who are steadily expanding
it. (Surat adh-Dhariyat, 47)
In another verse that refers
to the heavens, it is said;
Do not the Unbelievers see
that the heavens and the earth were joined together (as one unit
of creation), before We clove them asunder, and We made from water
every living thing. Will they not then believe? (Surat al-Anbiya,
The original word "ratk", which
is translated as "joined together" in the verse, means "anything
close, solid, impervious, united together in a solid mass" according
to Arabic dictionaries. That is, it is used for two different
pieces that form an entity. The statement "clove asunder" is the
"fatk" verb in Arabic and it means to split an object in the state
of "ratk". For instance, the sprouting of the seed and the appearance
of its shoots on the earth is expressed by this verb.
Now, let us once again look at the verse which refers
to a state in which the heavens and the earth are in a state of
"ratk". Then, these two are meant to have been cloven asunder
in the sense of the verb of "fatk". That is, one of them breaks
through the other and makes its way out. Indeed, when we are reminded
of the first moment of the Big Bang, we see that the spot called
the cosmic egg contained all the matters in the universe. Everything,
even "the heavens and the earth" that were not yet created were
contained in this spot in a state of "ratk". Afterwards, this
cosmic egg exploded, after which all substances became "fatk".
When we compare the expressions in the verse with
scientific findings, we see that they are in perfect agreement
with each other. Interestingly enough, these findings were not
arrived at until the 20th century.
CREATION OF THE HEAVENS
Steven Weinberg, the author of the book, The First
Three Minutes, once remarked that a quick glance at the sky might
give one the feeling of a strongly "unchanging universe". Indeed,
clouds drift along before the moon, the blue vault of heaven turns
around the pole star, the moon itself waxes and wanes over a longer
period of time, and the moon and the planets move through a plane
defined by the stars. We know, however. that all these are local
occurrences caused by the movements within our solar system. Weinberg
also adds that beyond the planets, the stars seem to be motionless.
Indeed, a quick glance at the sky may give
one the feeling that everything is very stable and steady. Yet
that is not the case. There is great activity in the sky and this
fact, which goes unrecognised by the naked eye, was reported centuries
ago in the Qur'an.
There are many verses in the Qur'an that refer to
the sky, most of them being plural. The word "semavat", meaning
"heavens", in Arabic denotes both the earth's atmosphere and space.
The first point we will discuss here is the plural
use of the word “heavens”. This plural use is one of the miracles
of the Qur'an. Let us now explain why.
Assume that you go out into the open air and turn
your head up towards the sky. What will you see? If it is summer,
you will see either a bright blue sky or some clouds floating
in the wind; and if winter, a grey, hazy sky covered with clouds.
Whatever you see, you will not be able to see the atmosphere surrounding
the world. You can never know that this atmosphere is made up
of several layers. That the Qur'an makes reference to this detail
unobservable by the naked eye is a great piece of evidence that
it is the word of Allah:
He Who has created seven heavens
in full harmony with one another: no incongruity will you see
in the creation of the Most Gracious. And turn your vision (upon
it) once more: can you see any flaw? Yes, turn your vision (upon
it) again and yet again: (and every time) your vision will fall
back upon you, dazzled and truly defeated. (Surat al-Mulk, 3-4)
Space may be imagined as an
enormous cavity: an infinitely vast cavity, a cavity containing
stars, planets and bodies in motion. However, space is not a cavity
left to itself. It is a "system" consisting of countless stars,
solar systems, planets, satellites and comets. It was earlier
stated in the Qur'an that the sky and space were created flawlessly
within "a great order":
Do they not look at the sky
above them? How We have built it and adorned it, and there are
no rifts therein? (Surah Qaf, 6)
STARS AND PLANETS
us first look at what is meant by the word "star" in the Qur'an.
The stars denoted by the words "necm" (star) and "kandil" (lamp)
in the Qur'an have two main functions as implied in the verses.
They are a source of light and they are used for navigation.
Particularly in the verses depicting the resurrection
day, it is stressed that the lights of the stars are put out and
become dim. When the sun, which is a star as well is referred
to, the word "kandil "is used. The word "kandil" is also used
when referring to the stars adorning the sky. Yet a very important
distinction is made where the word "nur" (light) is used for the
moon. In this way, the stars and the objects that are not stars
are distinguished from one another. This fact, which could not
have been known 14 centuries ago, is one of the miracles of the
We had mentioned that the second function of the
stars as they are referred to in the verses is as a guide to navigation.
These verses make it plain that people can determine the right
direction by the help of the stars in the sky. In all of these
verses, the word "necm" is used. Indeed, before the invention
of the compass, which has a very significant role at the outset
of the geographical discoveries in the Middle Ages, navigation
was only possible with the help of the stars on night voyages.
How is it possible that the stars show direction?
It is possible only if they are arranged in an observable order
in their fixed places. If a star appeared in one place one night,
and in another the next, it would be impossible to find one's
way by it. In this context, the particular places where the stars
appear in the sky have great importance. In the Qur'an, Allah
Nay, I swear by the places
of the stars And behold! that verily is a tremendous oath, if
you but knew. (Surat al-Waqia, 75-76)
THE SUN AND THE MOON
There are many verses in the Qur'an that make mention
of the sun and the moon. An interesting property is revealed when
their Arabic wording is investigated. In the verses, the words
"sirac" (lamp) and "vahhac" (brightly-burning) are used for the
sun. For the moon, the word "munir" (enlightening, shiny) is used.
Indeed, while the sun produces an enormous amount of heat and
light as a result of the nuclear reactions inside, the moon merely
reflects the light it receives from the sun. The verses make reference
to this distinction as follows:
Do you not see how God has
created seven heavens in full harmony with one another, and has
made the moon a light therein, and made the sun a (radiant) lamp?
(Surah Nuh, 15-16)
We have built above you seven strong heavens,
and have placed (therein the sun), a lamp full of blazing splendour.
(Surat an-Naba, 12-13)
Blessed Is He Who has set up in the skies constellations,
and has placed among them a (radiant) lamp and a light-giving
moon. (Surat al-Furqan, 61)
The difference between the sun
and the moon is quite evident in the verses. One is depicted as
a source of light and the other as a light-reflecting agent. It
is impossible for such a detail to have been known at that time.
It was not until centuries later that men came into possession
of this knowledge. Therefore, the fact that this information was
already given in the Qur'an is one of the proofs that the Qur'an
was revealed by God.
Now, let us turn our attention to another magnificent
characteristic of the heavenly bodies - which is their movements
ORBITS DESCRIBED IN THE
we have stated that the heavenly bodies are in motion in space.
These movements are fully controlled and all bodies move in a
computed orbit. In the Qur'an, certain verses referring to the
sun and the moon run as follows: "The sun
and the moon follow courses (exactly) computed". (Surat ar-Rahman,
5) "It is not for the sun to catch
up the moon, nor does the night outstrip the day. Each (just)
swims along in (its own) orbit." (Surah Yasin, 40) Another
verse to the same effect declares:
It is He Who created the night and the
day, and the sun and the moon. They swim along, each in an orbit.
(Surat al-Anbiya, 33)
According to a currently acknowledged
theory, massive and voluminous bodies in the universe exert a
gravitational force on smaller bodies. For example, the moon makes
an orbit around the earth, which has a bigger volume. The earth
and other planets in the solar system move in an orbit around
the sun. There exists a still bigger system around which the solar
system makes an orbit. The most critical point in all these details
is that none of the stars, planets and other bodies in space make
an uncontrolled move, cut across each other's orbit, or hit one
The Qur'an signifies the harmonious movement of these
bodies as follows:
By the sky full of paths and
orbits. (Surat adh-Dhariyat, 7)
The sun, as one of the billions
of stars in the universe, travels more than 17 million kilometers
a day in space. This journey of the sun is referred to by Allah
And the sun runs on unto a resting-place for
him. That is the decree of (Him), the Exalted in Might, the All-Knowing.
(Surah Yasin, 38)
THE CANOPY WELL GUARDED
We have made the sky a canopy well
guarded and (yet) they turn aside from its signs. (Surat al-Anbiya,
Almost everyone has seen the
pictures of the moon's surface. The surface structure is very
uneven due to the countless meteors that have fallen on it. The
multitude of craters formed by these meteors is one of the most
peculiar characteristics of the moon. Any space station or residential
site established on the moon surface with no special shield would
very likely be razed to the ground before long. The only way to
prevent this is to "guard" it in some way.
This detail, which we almost never think
about, is provided for the earth in a very natural way. There
is therefore no need for people to take extra measures to survive.
The atmosphere of the earth destroys all meteors big and small
approaching the earth, filters the harmful rays in space and thus
carries out a vital process for the permanence of human life.
Many detrimental - and even fatal -
rays reach the earth from the sun and other stars. In particular,
the energy explosions, the so-called "flares" that take place
in the sun, the closest star to the earth, constitute the main
source of these harmful rays.
During these sun flashes, a plasma cloud
is thrown into space with an average speed of 1,500 km/second.
The plasma cloud, made up of positively charged protons and negatively
charged electrons, is electrically conductive. As the cloud approaches
the earth with a speed of 1,500 kms/second, it begins to produce
an electric current under the effect of the magnetic field around
the earth. On the other hand, the magnetic field of the earth
exerts a pushing force on the plasma cloud that has a current
flowing through it. This force stops the movement of the cloud
and keeps it at a certain distance. Let us now take a look at
the power of the plasma cloud that is "stopped" before reaching
Although the plasma cloud is arrested
by the magnetic field of the earth, its effects are still perceived
from the earth. Following strong flashes, transformers may explode
in high voltage lines, communication networks may be damaged or
electric network fuses may blow out.
In a sun-spot explosion, the energy
released is calculated to be equivalent to 100 billion times that
of the atom bomb dropped on Hiroshima. Fifty-eight hours after
the flash, extreme activity was observed on the needle of the
compass, and the heat jumped up to 2,5000 C at a level about 250
kilometers above the atmosphere.
Yet another particle current is diffused
from the sun with a relatively lower speed, approximately 400
km/second. This is called the "solar wind". Solar winds are controlled
by a layer of charged particles called the "Van Allen Radiation
Belt" which is produced under the effect of the magnetic field
of the earth, and thus they cause no harm to the world. The formation
of this layer is made possible by the characteristics of the world's
core. The core contains magnetic metals like iron and nickel.
What is more important is that the nucleus is made up of two different
structures. The inner core is solid while the outer core is fluid.
These two layers of the core move around each other. This movement
creates a magnetic effect in metals which leads to the formation
of a magnetic field. The Van Allen Belt is an extension of this
magnetic field that stretches to the outermost reaches of the
atmosphere. This magnetic field protects the earth against the
dangers likely to come from space. Solar winds cannot pass through
the Van Allen Belt, 40,000 miles from the earth. When in the form
of electrically charged particles they meet this magnetic field,
they decompose and flow around the belt.
Just like the Van Allen Belt, the earth's
atmosphere also protects the earth from the destructive effects
of space. We mentioned that the atmosphere protects the earth
from meteors. However, this is not the only characteristic of
the atmosphere. For instance, a -273 temperature temperature in
outer space, which is called "absolute zero" would have a fatal
effect on people, were it not for the permanently higher temperatures
of the earth is atmosphere.
What is more interesting is that the
atmosphere lets only harmless rays, radio waves and visible light
in, because these are vital elements for life. The ultraviolet
rays, which are only partially let in by the atmosphere are very
important for the photosynthesis of plants and for the survival
of all living beings. This radiation, which is very strongly emitted
from the sun to the earth, is filtered through the ozone layer
of the atmosphere and only a limited required portion of it reaches
the earth. The sun's rays are one of the most essential requirements
Briefly, there is an excellent system
at work on the earth which encompasses itself and protects it
from outer dangers. In the Qur'an, the shielded state of the earth
is revealed by the following verse:
And We have made the heavens a canopy
well guarded: (yet) they turn aside from its signs. (Surat al-Anbiya,
There is no doubt that in the
7th century, it was impossible to have known either about the
protective quality of the atmosphere, or the existence of the
Van Allen Belt. However, the expression "a canopy well guarded"
perfectly explains the protective agents around the earth that
have not been discovered until modern times. So the above verse
referring to the heavens as "a canopy well guarded" indicates
that the Qur'an was sent by a Creator Who has knowledge of everything
and acknowledges all.
The relativity of time is a proven scientific
fact today. However, until Einstein put it as the "theory of relativity"
early this century, no one ever thought that time could be relative
and contingent on velocity and mass.
With a single exception though! The
Qur'an yielded information about the relativity of time! Three
related verses are;
Yet they ask you
to hasten on the Punishment! But Allah will not fail in His Promise.
Verily a Day in the sight of your Lord is like a thousand years
of your reckoning. (Surat al-Hajj, 47)
He regulates the affair from the
heaven to the earth; then shall it ascend to Him in a day the
measure of which is a thousand years of what you count. (Surat
The angels and the spirit ascend
unto him in a Day the measure whereof is (as) fifty thousand years.
(Surat al-Maarij, 4)
As a book whose revelation began
in 610, the Qur'an's referring to relativity so straightforwardly
is another evidence that it is a divine book.
OF THE EARTH
the language in which the Qur'an was revealed, is a very rich
and developed language. Its vocabulary is very large and words
have many variations. For this reason, some of the verbs in Arabic
cannot be translated into some languages as single words. For
instance, the verb "hashiya" means "fearing with awe" (other words
are used for other types of fears). Or the word "karia" is used
for referring to "an adversity, that which strikes", that is,
the day of Resurrection.
One of these verbs is "tekvir". In English,
this means "to make one thing lap over another, folded up as a
garment that is laid away". For instance, in Arabic dictionaries
this word is used for the action of wrapping one thing around
another, in the way that a turban is put on. Let us now look at
a verse where the verb "tekvir" is used:
He has created
the Heavens and the Earth for Truth. He wraps the night up in
the day, and wraps the day up in the night. (Surat az-Zumar, 5)
The information given in the
verse about the day's and the night's wrapping each other up includes
accurate information about the shape of the world. This situation
can be true only if the earth is round. This means that in the
Qur'an, the roundness of the world was hinted at.
However, the understanding of astronomy
of the time perceived the world differently. As we have mentioned,
it was then thought that the world was a flat plane and all scientific
calculations and explanations were based on this belief. However,
since the Qur'an is Allah's word, the most correct words are used
in it while describing the universe.
THE FUNCTION OF MOUNTAINS
According to geological findings, the
mountains have arisen as a result of the movements and clashes
of huge plates constituting the crust of the earth. These plates
are enormously big and carry all the continents. When two plates
collide, one usually slides under the other and the debris in
between is raised up. The big curves in the compressed debris
form the mountains by being elevated higher than their surroundings.
In the meantime, the protrusion that constitutes mountains proceeds
under the ground as well as over the ground. That means that mountains
have a portion stretching downwards as large as their visible
portion. These extensions of mountains below ground prevent the
crust of the earth from sliding on the magma layer or between
its own layers.
As this explanation makes clear, one
of the most significant characteristics of mountains is their
formation at the conjunction points of the earth's plates that
are closely pressed together as they come near and their "fixing"
them. That is, we may liken mountains to nails that keep wood
Moreover, the pressure the mountains
exert on the crust of the earth with their enormous mass prevents
the magma movements in the core of the earth from reaching the
earth and destroying the earth's crust. The central layer of the
earth, called the core, is an area made up of substances melted
in temperatures rising to thousands of degrees. Movements in the
core cause detachment regions to form between the plates making
up the earth. The mountains that form in these regions obstruct
the upward movements and protect the world from violent earthquakes.
It is very interesting to note that
these technical facts discovered by modern geology in our day
were revealed in the Qur'an centuries ago. In a verse on the mountains,
it is declared in the Qur'an:
He created the
heavens without any pillars that you can see; He set on the earth
mountains standing firm, lest it should shake with you; and He
scattered through it beasts of all kinds. (Surat al-Luqman, 30)
With this verse, the Qur'an
denied a superstitious belief that was commonly accepted at the
time. Having a primitive astronomical knowledge like many other
communities of the time, Arabs thought that the heavens were raised
high above the mountains. (This was a traditional belief which
was subsequently added to the explanation of the universe in the
Old Testament.) This belief held that there were high mountains
at the two ends of a flat world. These were the "buttresses" of
the heavens. They were thought to be pillars that held the heavens
above in their place. The verse above disproved this and maintained
that the heavens were "without any buttresses". The real geological
function of the mountains was also disclosed: to prevent tremors.
Another verse stresses the same point:
And We have set on the earth mountains
standing firm, lest it should shake with them, and We have made
therein broad highways (between mountains) for them to pass through:
that they may receive Guidance. (Surat al-Anbiya, 31)
Rain is indeed one of the most important
factors for the permanence of life on earth. It is a prerequisite
for the continuation of activity in a region. Rain, which carries
great importance for all living things, including human beings,
is mentioned in various verses of the Qur'an, where substantial
information is given about the formation of rain, its proportion
and effects. This information, which never could have been known
by the people of the time, shows us that the Qur'an is the word
Now, let us examine the information
given in the Qur'an about rain.
In the eleventh verse of Surat az-Zukhruf,
rain is defined as water sent down in "due measure". The verse
is as follows:
He sends down (from time to time)
water from the sky in due measure, and We raise to life therewith
a land that is dead. Even so will you be raised (from the dead).
(Surat az-Zukhruf, 11)
"measure" mentioned in the verse has to do with a couple of characteristics
of rain. First of all, the amount of rain that falls on the earth
is always the same. It is estimated, that in one second, 16 million
tonnes of water evaporate from the earth. This number is equal
to the amount of water that drops on the earth in one second.
This means that water continuously circulates in a balanced cycle
according to a "measure".
Another measure related with rain is
about its falling speed. The minimum altitude of rain clouds is
1,200 meters. When dropped from this height, an object having
the same weight and size as a rain drop, would continuously accelerate
and fall on the ground with a speed of 558 km/h. Certainly, any
object that hits the ground with that speed would cause great
damage. If rain happened to fall in the same way, all harvested
lands would be destroyed, residential areas, houses, and cars
would be damaged, and people would not be able to walk around
without taking extra precautions. What is more, these calculations
are made just for clouds at a height of 1,200 meters; there are
also rain clouds at altitudes of 10,000 meters. A rain drop falling
from such a height could normally reach a very destructive speed.
But this is not how it works; no matter
from what height they fall, the average speed of rain drops is
only 8-10 km/h when they reach the ground. The reason for this
is the special form they take. This special form increases the
friction effect of the atmosphere and prevents acceleration when
the rain drops reach a certain speed "limit". (Today parachutes
are designed by using this technique.)
This is not all about the "measures"
of rain. For instance, in the atmospheric layers where it starts
to rain, the temperature may fall as low as 400 C below zero.
Despite this, rain drops never turn into ice particles. (This
would certainly mean a fatal threat to the living things on the
earth.) The reason is that the water in the atmosphere is pure
water. As is well-known, pure water hardly freezes even at very
How rain forms remained a great mystery
for people for a long time. Only after weather radar was invented,
was it possible to discover the stages by which rain is formed.
The formation of rain takes place in
three stages. First, the "raw material" of rain rises up into
the air. Later clouds are formed. Finally, rain drops appear.
These stages are clearly defined in
the Qur'an centuries ago where precise information is given about
the formation of rain:
It is Allah Who sends the Winds,
and they raise the Clouds: then does He spread them in the sky
as He wills, and break them into fragments, until you see rain-drops
issue from the midst thereof: then when He has made them reach
such of his servants as He wills, behold, they do rejoice! (Surat
Now, let us look at the three
stages mentioned in the verse;
1ST STAGE: "It is Allah Who
sends the winds..."
Countless air bubbles formed by the
foaming in the oceans continuously burst and cause water particles
to be ejected towards the sky. These particles, which are rich
in salt, are then carried away by winds and move upwards in the
atmosphere. These particles, which are called aerosols, form clouds
by collecting around themselves the water vapour, which again
ascends from the seas, as tiny drops by a mechanism called "water
2ND STAGE: " ...and they raise
the Clouds: then does He spread them in the sky as He wills, and
break them into fragments..."
The clouds form from the water vapour
that condenses around the salt crystals or the dust particles
in the air. Because the water drops in these are very small (with
a diameter between 0.01 and 0.02 mm), the clouds are suspended
in the air and they spread in the sky. Thus the sky is covered
3RD STAGE: "...until you see
rain-drops issue from the midst thereof."
Water particles that surround salt crystals
and dust particles thicken and form rain drops. So, the drops,
which become heavier than air, depart from the clouds, and start
to fall on the ground as rain.
Every stage in the formation of rain
is told in the verses of the Qur'an. Furthermore, these stages
are explained in the right sequence. Just as with many other natural
phenomena in the world, it is again the Qur'an that provides the
most correct explanation about this phenomena as well, and more,
that has announced these facts to people centuries before they
were discovered by science
to a Dead Land
In the Qur'an, many verses call our
attention to a particular function of rain, which is "giving life
to a dead land":
We send down pure water from the
sky. That with it We may give life to a dead land, and slake the
thirst of many beings We have created, beasts as well as humans.
(Surat al-Furqan, 48- 49)
In addition to furnishing the
earth with water, which is an inevitable need of living beings,
rain also has a fertilisation effect.
Rain drops that reach the clouds after
being evaporated from the seas, contain certain substances "that
will give life" to a dead land. These "life-giving" drops are
called "surface tension drops". Surface tension drops form on
the top level of the sea surface which is called the “micro layer”
by biologists. In this layer, which is thinner than one tenth
of a millimetre, there are many organic leftovers caused by the
pollution of microscopic algae and zooplankton. Some of these
leftovers select and collect within themselves some elements which
are very rare in sea water, such as phosphorus, magnesium, potassium
and some heavy metals like copper, zinc, cobalt and lead. These
"fertiliser"-laden drops are lifted up into the sky by the winds
and after a while they drop on the ground inside the rain drops.
Seeds and plants on the earth find numerous metallic salts and
elements essential for their growth here in these rain drops.
This event is revealed in another verse of the Qur'an:
And We send down from the sky rain
laden with blessing, and We produce therewith gardens and grain
for harvests. (Surah Qaf, 9)
Salts that fall with rain are
small examples of certain elements (calcium, magnesium, potassium,
etc.) used for increasing fertility. The heavy metals found in
these types of aerosols are other elements that increase fertility
in the development and production of plants.
A barren land can be furnished with
all the essential elements for plants in a 100-year period just
with these fertilisers dropped with the rain. Forests also develop
and are fed with the help of these sea-based aerosols. In this
way, 150 million tons of fertiliser falls on the total land surface
every year. If there were no natural fertilisation like this,
there would be very little vegetation on the earth, and the ecological
balance would be impaired.
What is more interesting is that this
truth, which could only be discovered by modern science, was revealed
by Allah in the Qur'an centuries ago.
In the Qur'an, the winds are revealed
And We send the fecundating winds,
then cause water to descend from the sky, therewith providing
you with water (in abundance). (Surat al-Hijr, 22)
In Arabic, the word "fecundating"
implies the fecundating of both plants and clouds. Accordingly,
modern science has shown that winds indeed have both of these
functions. Winds, as mentioned before, do fecundate clouds by
carrying the crystals that are to take part in the formation of
rain drops. On the other hand, they also fecundate plants.
Plants throw pollen seeds containing
sperm cells into the air. Most plants are ideally created
to catch the pollen from the wind. Cones, hanging flowers, and
some other plants make canals that open towards air currents,
which carry these seeds to other plants of the same species. Pollen
seeds containing sperm cells arrive at the reproductive organs
thanks to these canals. The pollen reaching the ovule fertilises
the egg and thus ovules turn into seeds.
Most plants are ideally created to catch
pollen from the wind. Cones, hanging flowers, and some others
make canals that open towards air currents. Sperm-producing pollens
arrive at reproductive regions thanks to these canals. Plants
throw sperm-producing pollen seeds into the air. Afterwards, air
currents carry these seeds to other plants of the same species.
The pollen reaching the ovule fertilises the egg and thus ovules
turn into seeds.
OF THE FINGERPRINT
The "fingerprint" which is formed on
the tip of the finger by the visible pattern the skin takes is
absolutely unique to its owner. Every person living on the earth
has a different set of fingerprints. All the people who have lived
throughout history also had different fingerprints. These prints
remain unchanged throughout one's lifetime unless a great injury
||The fingerprints of every
person who has ever lived are different.
That is why the fingerprint is accepted
as a very important identity card and used for this purpose around
However, two centuries ago, the fingerprint
was not so important, because it was only discovered in the late
19th century that all fingerprints are different from one another.
In 1880, an English scientist named Henry Faulds stated in an
article published in Nature that the fingerprints of people did
not change throughout their lives, and that suspects could be
convicted by the fingerprints they left on surfaces such as glass.32
In 1884, for the first time a murder was solved by means of identifying
fingerprints. Since then, fingerprints have become an important
method of identification. Before the 19th century, however, people
most probably had never thought that the wavy shapes on their
fingertips had any meaning or considered them worthy of note.
In the 7th century, the Qur'an pointed
out that the fingertips of human beings bore an important characteristic:
Does man think that We cannot assemble
his bones? Yes, We are able to put together in perfect order the
very tips of his fingers. (Surat al-Qiyama, 3-4)
THE BIRTH OF MAN
Many diverse subjects are mentioned
in the Qur'an in the course of inviting people to believe. Sometimes
the heavens, sometimes the animals, and sometimes the plants are
shown as evidence to man by Allah. In many of the verses, people
are called upon to turn their attention to their own creation.
They are often reminded how man has come into the world, which
stages he has passed through and what his essence is:
It is We Who have created you. Why,
then, do you not accept the truth? Have you ever considered that
(seed) which you emit? Is it you who create it? Or are We the
Creator? (Surat al-Waqia, 57-59)
The creation of man and the
miraculous aspect of this is stressed in many other verses. Some
bits of information within these verses are so detailed that it
is impossible for a person living in the 7th century to have known
them. Some of them are as follows:
1. Man is not created from the
complete semen, but from a very small portion of it (sperm).
2. It is the male that determines
the sex of the baby.
3. The human embryo adheres to the
uterus of the mother like a leech.
4. The human develops in three dark
regions in the uterus.
People living in the age when
the Qur'an was revealed, to be sure, knew that the basic substance
of birth was related to the semen of the male emitted during sexual
intercourse. And the fact that the baby was born after a nine-month
period was obviously an observable event not calling for any further
investigation. However, the bits of information quoted above were
far above the level of learning of the people living in that period.
These could only be verified by 20th century science.
Now, let us go over them one by one.
1) A Drop of
During sexual intercourse, 250 million sperms are
emitted from the male at a time. The sperms undertake an arduous
5-minute journey in the mother's body until they make it to the
ovum. Only a thousand out of 250 million sperms succeed in reaching
the ovum. The ovum, the size of half a grain of salt, will let
only one of the sperms in. That is, the essence of man is not
the whole semen but only a small portion of it. This is explained
in the Qur'an:
Sperms surrounding the ovum...
Does man think that he will be left
uncontrolled, (without purpose)? Was he not a drop of sperm emitted
(in lowly form)? (Surat al-Qiyama, 36-37)
As we have seen, the Qur'an informs
us that man is made not from the complete semen but only a small
part of it. That the particular emphasis in this statement announces
a fact only discovered by modern science is evidence that the
statement is divine in origin.
2) The Mixture
in the Semen
The fluid called semen does not consist
of sperms alone. On the contrary, it is made up of a mixture of
different fluids. These fluids have functions such as containing
the sugar necessary for providing energy for the sperms, neutralising
the acids at the entrance of the uterus and creating the slippery
environment for the easy movement of the sperms.
Interestingly enough, when semen is
mentioned in the Qur'an, this fact, which is discovered by modern
science, is also referred to and the semen is defined as a mixed
Verily We created Man from a drop
of mingled sperm, in order to try him: So We gave him (the gifts),
of hearing and sight. (Surat al-Insan, 2)
In another verse, the semen
is again referred to as a mixture and it is stressed that man
is created from the "essence" of this mixture:
He Who has made everything which
He has created most good: He began the creation of man with clay,
and made his progeny from a quintessence of the nature of a fluid
despised. (Surat al-Sajda, 7-8)
The Arabic word "sulala", translated
as "quintessence", means the essential or best part of something.
By either implication, it means "part of a whole". This shows
that the Qur'an is the word of a Will that knows the creation
of man down to its slightest detail. This Will is the Creator
a Baby's Sex
Until fairly recently it was thought
that a baby's sex was determined by the male and female genes
together. The improving disciplines of genetics and microbiology
proved in the 20th century that the female has no role in the
Two of the 46 chromosomes that
determine the structure of a human being are the sex chromosomes.
These chromosomes are called "XY" in males and "XX" in females,
because the shapes of the chromosomes resemble these letters.
The Y chromosome is the one that carries all the specifically
The formation of an infant starts
by the uniting of two chromosomes: one from the father and one
from the mother. Because a female only has X chromosomes, her
reproductive cells (ova) will contain only those. Males on the
other hand, have both X and Y chromosomes, so half of their reproductive
cells (sperms) will be X and the other half Y. If an ovum unites
with a sperm containing an X chromosome, the offspring is female;
if it unites with one containing a Y chromosome, the offspring
In other words, a baby's sex is
determined by which (X or Y) chromosome from the male unites with
the chromosome from the female.
None of this was known until the
discovery of genetics in the 20th century. Indeed, in many cultures
it was believed that a baby's sex was determined by the condition
(health, etc.) of the mother's body. That was why women were blamed
when they had girls. (This primitive belief is still common.)
Thirteen centuries before the
genes were discovered, the Qur'an, however, revealed information
that denies this. In a verse it is stated that maleness or femaleness
is created from a drop of semen: that is, the source of the sexes
is not the woman but the man.
... He did create in pairs, male
and female, from a drop of sperm as it is poured forth. (Surat
4) The Clot
Clinging to the Uterus
When the sperm of the
male unites with the ovum of the female as described above, the
essence of the baby to be born is formed. This single cell, known
as the "zygote" in biology, will instantly start to reproduce
by dividing and eventually become a "piece of flesh".
A zygote that has clung on
to the uterus in the form of a piece of flesh.
The zygote, however, does not spend
its developmental period in a void. It clings to the uterus just
like roots that are firmly fixed to the earth by their tendrils.
Through this bond, the zygote can obtain the substances essential
to its development from the mother's body.
Such a detail could not
have been known without a sound knowledge of medicine. It is obvious
that no one possessed such knowledge 14 centuries ago. Interestingly
enough, Allah always refers to the zygote developing in the mother's
womb as "a clot of blood" in the Qur'an:
... Read! In the name of your Sustainer,
who has created man from a clot. Read – for your Sustainer is
the Most Bounteous. (Surat al-Alaq, 1-3)
Does man think that he will be left
uncontrolled, (without purpose)? Was he not a drop of sperm emitted
(in lowly form)? Then he became a clot; then Allah made and fashioned
him in due proportion. And made of him a pair, the male and the
female. (Surat al-Qiyama, 36-39)
The Arabic meaning of the word
"clot" is "a thing that clings to some place". The word is literally
used to describe leeches that cling to a body to suck blood. It
is obviously the best word possible to describe the zygote that
clings to the wall of the uterus and absorbs its sustenance from
The Qur'an has more to disclose about
Perfectly clinging to the uterus, the
zygote starts to develop. The uterus of the mother, meanwhile,
is filled with a fluid called the "amnion liquid" that surrounds
the zygote. The most important feature of the amnion liquid in
which the baby develops is to protect the baby against blows coming
from outside. In the Qur'an, this fact is revealed as follows:
We not create you from a base fluid which We placed in a safe
place, firmly fixed? (Surat al-Mursalat, 20-21)
All this information given in
the Qur'an about the formation of man demonstrates that the Qur'an
came from a source that knows about this formation down to its
This once more proves that the Qur'an
is the word of Allah. It would be sheer nonsense to claim that
the information yielded by the Qur'an about birth is "coincidentally"
correct: for there are many details revealed in the Qur'an and
such a detailed account has no chance whatsoever of "coincidentally"
agreeing with the truth in every respect.
Every description of the Qur'an is true
because every verse of it is comprised of the words of Allah.
Since it is Allah Who has created and shaped man in the mother's
womb, to Him belong the words that best describe this process.
Allah Who has created all of us in like manner describes the outset
of our lives in another verse as follows:
Man We did create from a quintessence
of clay. Then We placed him as (a drop of) sperm in a safe place
of rest. Then We made the drop a clot; then of that clot We made
a lump of flesh; then we made out of that lump of flesh bones
and clothed the bones with flesh; then we brought this into being
as a new creation. So blessed be Allah, the best to create! (Surat
O man! What has
beguiled you from your bountiful Sustainer? Him Who created
you, fashioned you in due proportion, and gave you a just
bias. In whatever form He willed, He put you together.
(Surat al-Infitar, 6-8)