In order for a watch to function, all
of its wheels must exist. Even if there is one missing wheel,
the watch will be useless. This "irreducibly complex" structure
shows that the watch is a work of perfection made by a designer
of superior skills.
All claims of Darwinism rest on the scenario
of "gradual development". The "irreducibly complex"
organs unravelled by 20th century science demolish this scenario
and the entire theory of evolution along with it.
If you ask an evolutionist: "How did the
marvellous organs of living things come into being?", he will
outline this scenario: "It is true that the extremely complex
systems of living organisms cannot form all of a sudden by chance.
These systems have rather developed step by step. First, a single
part of the system emerged by chance. Since this part was advantageous
for the organism, that organism benefited from natural selection.
Then other parts formed by steps, eventually building the highly
The point that renders this scenario invalid
right from the outset is the characteristic of "irreducible
complexity" in the systems of living things. If a system is
not functional without all of its components being in place, and
if it is useless if even only one of its components is missing,
then that system cannot be reduced to a simpler form. It either
exists perfectly and functions, or it is useless.
DESIGN OF THE EYE
The human eye works by some 40 different parts functioning
together. If one of these is not present, the eye will serve
no purpose. Each of these 40 parts has its own individual
structure. For instance, the retinal membrane at the back
of the eye is made up of 11 different layers. (Right below)
One of these layers is the blood vein network, as seen under
a microscope. (See side picture.) This layer, which has
the most intricate vein network in the body, meets the oxygen
needs of the retinal cells that interpret light. Each of
the other layers has a distinct function. Evolutionists
are unable to account for the development of such a complex
On close consideration, we see that an "irreducibly
complex" system cannot possibly form "step by step"
through coincidences. For no "intermediate step" would
be of any use unless the system were complete and perfect. A useless
intermediate step, on the other hand, would be eliminated by natural
selection and disappear according to the reasoning of evolution.
When Darwin put forward his theory, he had great
doubts about this point. He imagined that the organs of living things
could be reduced to simpler forms, yet he was also afraid that new
developments would destroy his speculation. This is why he wrote
the following lines in his book The Origin of Species:
If it could be demonstrated that any complex
organ existed, which could not possibly have been formed by numerous,
successive, slight modifications, my theory would absolutely break
BIOCHEMICAL CHALLENGE TO EVOLUTION
In his book Darwin's Black Box: The Biochemical Challenge
to Evolution, the American professor of biochemistry, Michael
Behe, quotes many examples of irreducible complexity. As Behe
makes clear, while irreducibly complex organs refute Darwinism,
they prove, on the other hand, that life is "designed" that
is, it is created.
Darwin's theory has today been overthrown just
as he feared, because scientific findings prove that most of the
systems in living organisms are irreducibly complex. Numerous structures
and systems from the human eye to the cell, from the coagulation
process in the blood to the protein, are of no use with even one
of their components missing. Not surprisingly, no evolutionist can
explain through which "steps" these organisms have formed.
While irreducible complexity – in Darwin's words
– "absolutely" breaks down the theory of evolution, it,
on the other hand, absolutely proves creation. Every irreducibly
complex system demonstrates the existence of an intelligence that
has built it. The complexity in living things proves the existence
and the perfect creation of God, Who created life. As stated in
the Qur'an, "He is God – the Creator,
the Maker, the Giver of Form. To Him belong the Most Beautiful Names.
Everything in the heavens and earth glorifies Him. He is the Almighty,
the All-Wise." (Surat al-Hashr: 24)
Darwin, The Origin of Species: A Facsimile of the First Edition, Harvard
University Press, 1964, p. 189