The Mechanisms In Our Body
In many verses of the Qur’an, Allah calls our
attention to the creation of man and invites people to ponder on
this creation: "O man! What has deluded you
in respect of your Noble Lord? He Who created you and formed you
and proportioned you and assembled you in whatever way He willed."
(Surat al-Infitar: 6- 8)
The human being is one of the living beings with
the most excellent, sophisticated and amazing systems in nature,
fashioned in due proportion by Allah.
The human body is an amount of flesh and bone
of approximately 60-70 kilograms. As is well known, flesh is one
of the most fragile materials in nature. When left in the open,
it decomposes within a couple of hours, becomes maggoty within a
few days and starts to stink unbearably. This feeble substance constitutes
a large part of the human body. However, it is maintained without
being spoilt, and without decaying, for about 70-80 years by means
of the blood circulation that feeds it, and by the skin that protects
it from external bacteria.
the other hand, the skills of the body are very impressive. Each
one of the five senses is a miracle. Man gets to know the external
world through these senses, and lead his life peacefully thanks
to the wholeness of these senses. Details that we encounter as we
survey the senses of sight, smell, touch, hearing and taste and
their flawless designs are each pieces of evidence that prove the
being of the Creator.
The miraculous structures of the human body are
not limited to the five senses. Each of the organs facilitating
our lives is a separate miracle. They all function just to meet
our needs. Let's just imagine how hard life would be if we were
created without hands. What would happen if we did not have legs,
or if our bodies were covered with thorns, scales or a hard outer
layer, instead of skin?
Moreover, the existence of complex systems in
the human body, such as respiration, feeding, reproductive and defence
mechanisms, and the aesthetics of the human body are each separate
As seen, there are many delicate balances in
the human body. The perfect relation of the entirely interdependent
systems to the other systems in the body enables man to carry on
his vital functions without problem.
Moreover, he does all these without spending
any extra effort, or facing any difficulties. Most of the time,
the person does not even become aware of all that happens. Man is
not aware of many things: the time when digestion starts or ends
in his stomach, the rhythm of his heart, the blood’s carrying exactly
the required material to exactly the right places, and his seeing
A flawless system has been established in the
human body and it works perfectly. This is the creation of Allah,
Who regulates all affairs from the heavens to the earth. Allah creates
everything, every detail and every living being in the universe.
The design we confront when we closely examine the human body is
evidence of the uniqueness and flawlessness of Allah’s art of creation.
Allah draws our attention to the perfection in
the universe in Surat al-Mulk:
He who created the seven heavens in layers.
You will not find any flaw in the creation of the All-Merciful.
Look again - do you see any gaps? Then look again and again. Your
sight will return to you dazzled and exhausted! (Surat al-Mulk:
A few of the millions of delicate balances in
the human body are as follows:
The five senses are arranged entirely according
to the human’s needs. For instance, the ear can only sense those
sound vibrations that are within certain limits. At first glance,
to hear within a larger range might seem more advantageous, yet
these sensory limits - called the "hearing threshold" - are regulated
for a purpose. If we had very sensitive ears, every moment we would
have to bear the sound of many noises from the beating of our hearts
to the rustling of microscopic mites on the floor. Then, life really
would be very irritating for us.
The same "punctuated equilibrium" holds true
also for the sense of touch. The nerves sensitive to touch lying
under the human skin are made sensitive in the best possible way
and are spread all over the body. The nerves are amassed mainly
on our fingertips, lips and sexual organs. Comparatively, "less
important" regions of the body such as our backs have fewer nerves.
This provides great advantages for man. Let us imagine if the contrary
was the case: that our fingertips were extremely insensitive, and
that the majority of nerves were collected on our backs. Undoubtedly,
this would be quite irritating, for while we would not be able to
use our hands effectively, we would feel the tiniest substance -
for instance, the creases of our shirt - on our backs.
Development of the organs is an example of this
"delicate balance". For instance, think about hair and the eyelashes.
Although both are ultimately "hair", they do not grow equally in
the same period. Suppose that eyelashes grew as fast as our hair.
They would impede our sight and go into our eyes, thus harming one
of our most vital organs. Eyelashes have a certain length that stays
constant. If by any means, such as burning or an accident, they
shorten, they then elongate until they reach their "ideal" length
and stop again.
Even the shape of the lashes is very important.
Since they curl slightly upwards, they do not restrict sight and
they give the eyes an aesthetic look. As the lashes grow, they are
covered by an unusual oil secreted by specific glands located at
the rim of the eyelids. This is why our lashes are not rough and
straight like a brush. There is exactly just such a "subtle adjustment"
in every spot of the human body.
This punctuated creation is strikingly revealed
in the new-born baby as well as in adolescents. For instance, the
new-born baby’s skull bones are very soft and can, to a limited
extent, move over one another. This flexibility facilitates the
emergence of the baby’s head from the womb without harm. If these
skull bones were inflexible, during birth they could crack and cause
serious damage to the baby’s brain.
With the same flawlessness, all of the organs
in a human being develop in harmony with each other in the course
of development. For example, in the development of the head, the
skull that encases the brain grows along with it. A skull developing
comparatively slower than the brain would compress it, and cause
death in a short time.
The same balance is true also for other organs
such as the heart, lungs and thorax, the eye and eye socket.
For this reason, it is useful to examine the
extraordinary structures of our body to see the art and might in
the creation. Every part of our body, the structure of which is
more perfect than the most advanced factories equipped with the
latest technologies, displays the matchless creation of Allah and
proves His sovereignty over our entire body.
If we briefly examine the systems and organs
in the human body, we will witness intimately the evidence of a
flawless and balanced creation.
The saliva that is brought into play right at the
beginning of the digestive process, moistens the food so that it can
be easily chewed by the teeth and move down the oesophagus with facility.
Saliva is also a specialised substance for turning, through its chemical
properties, starch into sugar. Just think what would happen if saliva
were not secreted in the mouth. We would not be able to swallow anything
or even talk because of our dry mouths. We would not be able to eat
anything solid, but have to feed on liquids or the like.
There is excellent balance in the system of the
stomach. In the stomach, food is digested by the hydrochloric acid
therein. This acid is so strong that it could even eat away the
stomach walls as well as the food taken in. Yet, a solution is created
for man: a substance called mucus, secreted during digestion, coats
the stomach walls providing exceptional protection against the disintegrative
effect of the acid.
Thus, the stomach is prevented from destroying
itself. An error in the composition of the mucus could destroy its
protective function. There is a perfect match between the acid used
for digestion and the mucus secreted to protect the stomach from
The digestive system is one in which mouth, saliva, stomach,
pancreas, liver and intestines operate in harmony and discharge
their own functions. If one or more of these complementary
organs do not function fully, the whole system becomes locked
When the stomach is empty, the secretion that
breaks up proteins, that is, foods derived from animals such as
meat, is not produced in the stomach. In fact, it exists in the
form of a harmless substance without any disintegrative properties.
As soon as a protein-containing food enters the stomach, the HCI
is secreted in the stomach and breaks this neutral substance down
into proteins. Thus, when the stomach is empty, this acid does not
injure the stomach that is itself made of proteins.
It is noteworthy that ‘evolution’ can never explain
the existence of such a complex system, for it defends the idea
that complex structures around us gradually evolved from primitive
organisms by the accumulation of small structural improvements.
However, it is obvious that the system in the stomach could not
have evolved gradually and step-by-step. Absence of even a single
factor would bring an end to the organism. One example is sufficient
to better understand the inconsistency of the theory of evolution.
Think of an organism that wears down its own
stomach by the acid it produces there - first its stomach would
be destroyed painfully and then its other organs would be consumed
by the same acid. The organism would die by eating itself alive.
The liquid in the stomach acquires the capacity
to break down proteins after a series of chemical reactions. Think
of an organism within the process of evolution, in the stomach of
which such a chemical transformation cannot be realised. If the
liquid in the stomach of an organism did not acquire the feature
of decomposing proteins, that organism would not be able to digest
food, and eventually would die with a lump of undigested food in
A pump (villi) situated in the small intestines that absorbs
the necessary materials from the digested food. There are
200 million such pumps in a square millimetre, and each one
of them functions every second for the maintenance of our
life. In the figure are seen special channels (veins, capillaries,
and lymphoid channels) found in the pumps and through which
nutrients are absorbed.
Let us look at the subject from another point
of view. The stomach cells produce the acid in the stomach. Both
these cells and other cells in any other part of the body (for instance
the cells of the eye) are twin cells originating from the division
of the same original single cell in the mother’s uterus. Moreover,
both of them have the same genetic information. This means that
the data bank of both cells includes genetic information about the
proteins needed by the eye and the acid used in the stomach. Yet,
submitting to an order coming from an unknown source, among millions
of other pieces of information, the eye cell utilises the information
belonging to the eye and the stomach cell utilises the information
belonging to the stomach. What if the cells of the eye that produce
the proteins necessary for the eye (for a reason unknown to us),
began to produce the acid used in the stomach - about which they
possess the necessary information? If something like that happened,
a person would melt and digest his own eye.
Let us continue to examine the amazing balance
inside our body:
The rest of the digestive process is equally
well planned. The useful part of the food, which has been digested,
is absorbed by the lining of the small intestine and diffuses through
the blood. The lining of the small intestine is covered with lateral
folds that look like a wrinkled cloth. On each fold are smaller
folds called "villus". These folds increase immensely the absorptive
surface of the intestine. On the upper surface of the cells over
the villus are microscopic projections named "microvillus". These
projections absorb the food and function as pumps. The interiors
of these pumps are connected to the circulatory system through a
conveyance system furnished with diverse conveyance routes. This
is how the nutrition that has been absorbed reaches the whole body
through the circulatory system. Each of the villi has nearly 3,000
microvillus. A 1 mm square area in the lining of the small intestine
is covered by approximately 200 million microvillus. In an area
of one square millimetre, 200 million pumps work, without breaking
down or becoming exhausted, in order to sustain human life. So many
pumps, which would normally cover a very large area, are squeezed
into a very limited space. This system sustains our lives by ensuring
that our body makes maximum use of the food we take in.
All the systems in the human body (digestive, circulatory,
respiratory and excretory systems) work in co-operation and
in harmony with each other. In the figure, you may see their
interrelation with each other.
Respiration is based on delicate balances. Cold
or polluted air we breathe may effect our health negatively. For this
reason, air should be warmed and cleaned before inhalation. Our nose
is created appropriately for this task. The hair and nasal mucus on
the walls of the nostrils filter air by capturing dust particles within
it. Meanwhile, the air is warmed while travelling through the nostrils.
The nasal bones are especially structured so that the air inhaled
can go to the lungs only after circulating several times in the nose
and thus warming up. The structure that enables air to travel several
times within a tiny bone, can only be the outcome of design. If human
beings were to try to duplicate this effect, directing the movement
of air would only be possible by specific complex calculations. The
fact that this special structure exists to meet the needs of another
system - namely, cleaning and warming the air travelling to the lungs
- is evidence that both systems are specially created by the same
Creator. After all these stages, the air arrives in the respiratory
tube after being moistened and freed of dust.
The skeleton is an engineering marvel on its own.
It is the structural support system of the body. It protects vital
organs like brain, heart and lungs, and upholds the internal organs.
It furnishes the human body with a superior capacity for movement
that cannot be imitated by any artificial mechanism. Bone tissue is
not inorganic as many people think. Bone tissue is the mineral bank
of the body that includes many important minerals like calcium and
phosphate. In accordance with the needs of the body, it either stores
these minerals or delivers them to the body. Besides all these, bones
also produce red blood cells.
The skeleton is a real engineering miracle. It is composed
of 206 bones. These fused bones furnish the human body with
an extraordinary capability of movement. No robot constructed
so far can imitate the locomotive ability of the human body.
In addition to the uniformly perfect functioning
of the skeleton, the bones constituting it also have an exceptional
structure. Having the tasks of bearing and protecting the body,
bones are created with the capacity and strength to fulfil this
function. The worst conditions possible are taken into consideration
as well. For instance, the thighbone can carry a weight weighing
a ton when perpendicular. Surprisingly, at each step we take, the
bone carries a weight equivalent to three times our body weight.
When an athlete pole-vaults and he lands on the ground, every square
centimetre of his pelvis is exposed to a pressure of 1,400 kilograms.
What makes this structure, which is formed by the division and replication
of the single original cell, so strong? The answer to the question
is hidden in the unequalled creation of bones.
An example from today's technology would be helpful
to further clarify the subject. The scaffolding system is used in
the construction of spacious and tall buildings. The support elements
of the constructions made with this technique do not have a monolithic
structure, but consist of many intersecting rods forming a scaffold.
By the help of complex calculations that can only be made by computers,
it could be possible to build stronger and more cost-effective bridges
and industrial constructions.
The internal structure of bones is similar to
that of the scaffold system used in the construction of those bridges
The only important difference is that the system
in bones is more complicated and superior to those designed by men.
By means of this system, the bones are extremely strong and yet
light enough for comfortable use by humans. If the opposite were
the case, i.e., if the interior of the bones was hard and full like
its exterior, it would be too heavy to be carried by a human and
would easily break or crack at the slightest blow due to its rigid
and hard structure.
This is the micrograph of the marvellous organisation inside
the longitudinal bones of the body. The bones, which produce
blood cells and function as the mineral bank of the body, are
The perfect design of our bones helps us lead
our lives very simply, manage to perform even very difficult tasks
easily without pain. Another feature of bone structure is its flexibility
in certain parts of the body. Just as the rib-cage protects the
vital organs of the body such as the heart and lungs, it also expands
and contracts to let air move in and out of lungs.
The elasticity of bones may change over time.
For instance, in women, the hipbones are extended towards the last
months of pregnancy and move apart from each other. This is an extremely
important detail, because during birth, this extension allows the
baby's head to come out of the mother’s womb without being crushed.
The miraculous aspects of the bones are not limited
to these. Besides their flexibility, durability and lightness, the
bones also have an ability to repair themselves. When a bone is
broken, one only has to keep this bone firm to allow it to repair
itself. As is obvious, this, like all other processes in the body,
is an extremely complex process in which millions of cells collaborate.
With each step, a force is exerted by the ground on the
body as a reaction to the body’s weight. If the shock absorbers
between the vertebrae did not exist, and if the spine had
a straight structure, this force would be transmitted directly
to the skull. Consequently, the top of the spine would break
into the brain and shatter the skull.
The locomotive capability of the skeleton is
another important detail to consider. With each step we take, the
vertebrae making up our backbone move over each other. This continuous
movement and friction might normally cause the vertebrae to wear
out. In order to prevent this, between each vertebra, resistant
cartilages, called ‘disks’, are placed. These disks function as
shock absorbers. At each step, a force is exerted by the ground
on the body as a reaction to the body’s weight. This force does
not do any harm to the body due to the shock absorbers of the backbone
and its "force distributing" curved shape. If this flexibility and
special structure that reduce the force of reaction did not exist,
the released force would be transmitted directly to the skull and
the top end of the spine would break into the brain by shattering
The traces of creation are also visible at the
joint surfaces of the bones. The joints do not need to be lubricated
although they move continuously for a lifetime. Biologists conducted
research to find the reason: how is the friction in joints being
Scientists saw that the event was solved by a
system that can be regarded as an "absolute miracle of creation".
Joint surfaces exposed to friction are covered with a thin, porous
cartilage layer. Under this layer is a lubricant. Whenever the bone
compresses the joint, this lubricant gushes out of the pores and
makes the joint surface slide "as if on oil".
These all show that the human body is the outcome
of perfect design, and it is a superior creation. This perfect design
helps a human being to make very dissimilar movements with great
swiftness and facility.
Just imagine if everything were not so perfect
and the entire leg were formed of a single long bone. Then, walking
would be a serious problem and we would have very clumsy and idle
bodies. Even taking a seat would be difficult, and the leg bone
would easily break because of being forced during such acts.
Even one of the systems seen in the picture cannot have
been established by coincidence. In addition, it would have
no meaning for these systems to form separately one by one.
They have to come into existence concurrently in absolute
However, the human skeleton has a structure that
permits all kinds of body motions.
Allah created, and still creates, all the features
of the skeleton. Allah invites man, whom He has created, to ponder
...Look at the bones -Look further at the
bones, how We bring them together and clothe them with flesh...
(Surat al-Baqara: 259)
Man must ponder this, appreciate the might of
Allah, Who has created him, and be thankful to Him. If he does not
do so, he will be in great loss. Allah, Who created the bones and
clothed them with flesh, is able to do it again. This is stated
in the verse:
Does not man see that We created him from
a drop yet there he is an open antagonist! He makes likenesses of
Us and forgets his own creation, saying, "Who will give life to
the bones when they are decayed?" Say "He who made them in the first
place will bring them back to life. He has complete knowledge of
every created thing." (Surah Yasin: 77-79)
In the human body, all the systems simultaneously
work in a co-ordinated way and in full harmony for a definite purpose,
namely, to keep the body alive. Even the smallest movements we do
everyday, such as breathing or smiling, are outcomes of perfect
co-ordination in the human body.
Inside us is an incredibly complicated and comprehensively
co-ordinated network that operates without stopping at all. The
purpose is the continuance of living. This co-ordination is particularly
visible in the locomotive system of the body, because, for even
the smallest movement, skeletal system, muscles and nervous system
must work in perfect collaboration.
The precondition of co-ordination in the body
is correct information delivery. Only by delivering correct information
can new assessments be made. For this purpose, a highly developed
intelligence web functions in the human body.
In order to perform a co-ordinated act, first,
the organs involved in this act and their inter-relations should
be known. This information comes from the eyes, the balance mechanism
in the internal ear, muscles, joints and skin. Every second, billions
of pieces of information are processed, evaluated and new decisions
are taken accordingly. Man is not even aware of the processes accomplished
in his body at dizzying speed. He just moves, laughs, cries, runs,
eats and thinks. He spends no effort in performing these acts. Even
for a faint smile, seventeen muscles have to work together at the
Non-function or malfunction of even one of these
muscles changes the expression on the face. In order to be able
to walk, fifty-four different muscles in the feet, legs, hips and
back must work in co-operation.
There are billions of microscopic receptors in the muscles and the
joints, giving information about the present condition of the body.
The messages coming from these receptors reach the central nervous
system and new commands are sent to the muscles according to the
The perfection of the co-ordination of the body
will be better understood with the following example. In order just
to lift the hand, the shoulder has to be bent, the front and rear
arm muscles - called "triceps" and "biceps" - should be contracted
and relaxed, and the muscles between elbow and wrist have to twist
the wrist. In every part of the act, millions of receptors in the
muscles pass on information immediately to the central nervous system
about the position of the muscles. In return, the central nervous
system tells the muscles what to do in the next step. Of course
one is not aware of any of these processes, but just wishes to lift
one’s hand, and does it right away.
For instance, to keep your body straight, many
pieces of information derived from billions of receptors in your
leg muscles, feet, back, abdomen, chest and neck are evaluated and
a similar number of commands are given to the muscles each second.
Nor do we spend extra effort to speak. Man never
plans how far apart the vocal cords should be, how often they should
vibrate, in which sequence, how often and which of the hundreds
of muscles in mouth, tongue and throat should be contracted and
relaxed. Nor does he calculate how many cubic centimetre of air
should be inhaled into the lungs, and how fast and in which frequency
this air should be exhaled. We could not do this even if we wanted
to! Even a single word uttered from the mouth, is an outcome of
the collective working of many systems stretching from man’s respiratory
system to the nervous system, from the muscles to the bones.
The scheme illustrates the transmission of information
from sensors in the muscles to the spinal cord, which in turn
gives the muscles new instructions. Each second while you
read these lines, billions of pieces of information transmitted
by billions of receptors are evaluated and the same number
of instructions are given. Man finds himself born into this
miraculous system. He, however, has no share either in its
creation or even in its operation.
What happens in case of a problem in this co-ordination?
Different expressions might appear on our faces when we want to
smile, or we might not manage to talk or walk when we want to. However,
we can smile, talk, walk anytime we want and no problems occur,
because everything mentioned here is accomplished as a result of
the fact of Creation which logically requires "infinite intelligence
For this reason, man should always remember that
he owes his being and life to his Creator, Allah. There is nothing
for man to be arrogant or boastful about. His health, beauty or
strength is not his own work, and it is not given to him eternally.
He certainly will become old and lose his health and beauty. In
the Qur’an, this is stated as:
Anything you have been given is only the
enjoyment of the life of this world and its finery. What is with
Allah is better and longer lasting. So will you not use your intellect?"
(Surat al-Qasas: 60)
If a person wants to attain attributes far superior
to these, eternally in the hereafter, he must be grateful to Allah
for the favours He has bestowed upon him, and live his life according
to His commands.
As seen in these examples, all the organs and
systems in the human body bear "miraculous" characteristics. When
these characteristics are examined, man will see on what delicate
balances his existence depends and the miracles in his creation,
and will come to grasp once more the great art of Allah as exemplified
The liver, which lies on the upper right side
of the abdominal cavity, functions as an excellent filter within
the blood’s circulatory system. While the kidney filters simple
water-soluble, surplus human materials, the liver cleans complex
surpluses, like medicine and hormones.
Supports the defence system logistically:
The liver does not only function as a filter for
food and surpluses of metabolism, but also produces globulins, which
are immune substances, and enzymes, which are vein-repairing groups.
Cleans bacteria: Kupffer cells found in the liver
engulf bacteria in the blood passing through the liver, especially
when coming from the intestines. When the number of particles or
other side products in the blood increases, Kupffer cells, too,
increase in number to filtrate these materials from the blood.
Produces the energy resources of the body:
One of the most significant features of the liver
is its production of glucose, which is the main energy source of
Glucose taken in from the everyday diet is converted
into glycogen and stored in the liver. The liver continually controls
the glucose level of the blood. When nothing is eaten between meals
and the glucose level of the blood starts to fall, the liver turns
the stored glycogen back into glucose and releases it into the blood.
Therefore, the level of glucose is not permitted to fall critically.
The liver can produce glucose also from fatty acids and amino acids
as well, just as it can convert other carbohydrates, which are not
likely to be used in energy production, into glucose.
Stores blood: The liver has a structure
that can expand or shrink. Given this feature, it can both store
blood and release it into the veins.
In a healthy body, the liver can hold 10% of
the total blood of the human body, which makes 450 ml of blood.
In some conditions, e.g., when there is a heart defect in a person,
the amount of blood usually circulating in the body will be too
much for the working pace of the heart. In this circumstance, the
liver doubles its blood-retaining capacity and stores 1 litre of
blood. Thus, it allows the heart to work at a tolerable pace.
When need for blood increases, (e.g., while exercising)
the liver releases the blood it has stored into the circulatory
system and meets the need for blood.
Works economically: When glucose is consumed
in the muscles, lactic acid, a surplus of metabolism, is released.
As long as lactic acid stays in the muscle, it gives pain and prevents
its operation. The liver collects this acid from the muscles and
can convert it back into glucose.
Produces new red blood cells instead of the dead
ones:The spleen and liver are the locations where new red blood
cells are produced replacing dead ones, and a major part of the
proteins are broken down and put to re-use as amino acids for different
purposes. The liver is the organ where iron, which has important
functions in the body, is stored.
The liver is the most developed reserve of the
body. All minerals, proteins, a small amount of fat and vitamins
are stored in the liver. Whenever needed, it delivers the stored
substance to the necessary area in the shortest way possible. It
scrupulously controls whether the body has enough energy or not
by a specialised intelligence system. All organs in the body are
related to the liver.
Is able to repair itself: The
liver has the capability to repair itself. If a certain part of
it is damaged, the remaining cells make up for the defective part
by increasing in number instantly. Even if two-thirds of the organ
is amputated, the remaining part can re-compose the liver entirely.
While repairing itself, the organ removes the
ruined or dead cells from the milieu and replaces them with new
ones. A liver cell is specialised enough to perform more than 500
operations at a time. It usually makes these not successively but
Think of a tissue metres in length yet integral;
let it be a tissue bearing features that provide simultaneously
both heating and cooling; firm yet very aesthetic, that can offer
a very effective protection against all external effects.
The skin tissue that covers the human body and
the bodies of all living beings, with some differences according
to species, bears all of these characteristics.
Although the skin is assumed to have a simple structure,
it truly is a highly complex organ composed of various layers,
in which are receptor nerves, circulatory channels, ventilation
systems, temperature and humidity regulators, and it can even
produce a shield against sun-light when necessary.
Skin tissue, like many other structures, is an
organ important enough that its absence puts human life at risk.
The injury of even a section of the skin, leading to a considerable
water loss in the body, would cause death. Given this feature, the
skin is an organ that refutes the theory of evolution on its own.
It is impossible for a living being to survive, which has all of
its organs fully formed but its skin not yet evolved or partly formed.
This shows us that all the bodily parts of human beings as well
as animals have been formed intact and flawless at the same time,
that is, they were created.
Beneath the skin, which is made up of totally
different structures, lies a layer made up of lipids. This lipid
layer has the function of insulation against heat. Above this layer
is a section most of which is made up of proteins and which gives
the skin its quality of elasticity.
The view we would come across when we look at
a centimetre below the skin is a picture formed by these lipids
and proteins, with various vessels therein. It is not aesthetic
at all, and even terrifying. Covering all these structures, the
skin both makes a very aesthetic contribution to our body and it
protects us from all external effects, which alone is enough to
show how important the existence of our skin is to us.
All of the functions of the skin are vital. Some
of these are:
It prevents disturbance of the body’s water
balance: Both sides of the epidermis,
the outer layer of skin, are waterproof. Water concentration in
the body is controlled by means of this feature of the skin. The
skin is a more important organ than the ear, nose and even the eye.
We can live without our other sense organs, but it is impossible
for man to survive without skin. It is impossible for "water", the
most vital fluid of human body, to be retained in the body without
It is strong and flexible: Most
of the cells of the epidermis are dead. Dermis, on the other hand,
is made up of living cells. Later, epidermal cells start to lose
their cellular characteristics and are converted into a hard substance
called "keratin". Keratin holds these dead cells together and forms
a protective shield for the body. It may be thought that its protective
quality would increase if it were thicker and harder, but this is
deceptive. If we had a skin as hard and thick as that of the rhinoceros’,
our highly mobile body would lose this mobility and be clumsy.
Regardless of the species in question, the skin
is never thicker than required. There is a very well balanced and
controlled plan in the structure of the skin. Let us suppose that
epidermal cells constantly died and this process did not stop at
a certain point. In this condition, our skin would continue to thicken,
and become thick like an alligator’s skin. Yet, this is never the
case, the skin is always just thick enough. How does this happen?
How do skin cells know where to stop?
It would be very illogical and ridiculous to
claim that the cells constituting skin tissue determine where to
stop on their own, or that this system came about in a coincidental
way. There is a manifest design in the structure of the skin. No
doubt, it is Allah, the Sustainer of all the worlds, the One and
Only, Who has brought about this design.
It has mechanisms to cool down the body in
hot weather: The dermis is surrounded
by very thin capillaries which not only feed the skin, but also
check the blood level within it. When body temperature rises, the
veins expand and help the excessively warm blood to travel through
the outer layer of the skin, which is relatively cooler, and the
heat is released. Another mechanism that cools the body down is
sweating: the human skin is full of many tiny holes called "pores".
These pores reach as deep as the lowest layer of the skin where
sweat glands lie. These glands pass the water they take from the
blood through the pores and throw it out of the body. The water
thrown out uses the body heat to vaporise and this causes coolness.
It retains body heat in cold weathers:
In cold weathers, the activity of sweat glands
slows and the veins narrow. This decreases the blood circulation
under the skin therefore preventing body heat from escaping.
What all of this shows is that human skin is
a perfect organ specially designed to facilitate our lives. Skin
protects us, functions as an "air-conditioner", and facilitates
easy locomotion thanks to its flexibility. Moreover, it is aesthetic.
Instead of this type of skin, we could well have
a thick and coarse skin. We could have an inflexible skin that would
crack and split in the event we put on even a few kilograms. We
could have skin that would cause us to faint from heat in summer
and freeze in winter. However, Allah, Who created us, has covered
our body in the most comfortable, serviceable and aesthetic way.
For He is "the Creator, the Maker, the Giver
of Form." (Surat al-Hashr: 24).
The heart has an excellent design based on delicate balances,
with its four chambers pumping blood to different parts of
the body without mixing two different kinds of bloods one
with another, and its openings functioning as safety valves.
The most important component of the circulatory
system that connects the 100 trillions cells in the human body one
by one, is, without doubt, the heart. With its four different chambers
that pump deoxygenated and oxygenated blood to different parts of
the body without mixing them with one another, and with its valves
that function as safety valves, the heart’s design depends on highly
Our heart, which constantly beats throughout
our lives at a certain pace although we do not intervene at all,
is one of the clearest pieces of evidence of the Creation.
Starting to beat in the mother’s womb, the heart
works, without stopping at all during our entire lifetime, with
a rhythm of 70-100 beats per minute. It rests only for half a second
between each beat and it beats approximately 100,000 times a day.
When a human’s life span is considered, we would come across a figure
quite hard to calculate.
All the structures in the heart, which has an
extremely delicate order in its operation, are specially designed.
In the heart, every detail has been considered: the deoxygenated
and oxygenated blood’s not mixing with one another, the regulation
of body pressure, the operations required for the delivery of nutrients
to the whole body, and the systems that pump blood only as much
as needed. The heart is accordingly designed for all of the above.
In the heart, which is a wonder of design, exists
a system so complex that it could not by any means have been formed
by coincidence. All of these features present us their designer,
that is, Allah, the Sustainer of all the worlds, Who creates flawlessly
and without an example.
A few features of the heart can be listed:
The heart is placed in one of the most protected
places in the body: By being placed in the rib-cage with a special
design, the heart, one of the most important organs, is very well
protected against external blows.
Deoxygenated and oxygenated bloods never mix:
In the heart, deoxygenated and oxygenated bloods
are in constant motion. A special tissue divides the heart into
four chambers with different features. The upper part comprises
the right and the left atria, which are filling chambers. They pass
the blood to the ventricles below. Thanks to the delicate order
here, the bloods never mix with each other.
It regulates the blood pressure in such a
way that it does no harm to the organs: The heart works not
like a single pump, but like two adjacent pumps, each of which has
its own ventricle and atrium. This separation also divides our circulatory
system into two. The right side of the heart sends blood with a
relatively lower pressure to the lungs and the left side pumps blood
with a higher pressure to the whole body. This pressure regulation
is very important, because if the blood sent to the lungs were pumped
with the same pressure as the blood sent out around the body, the
lungs would be crushed, being unable to stand this pressure. The
perfect balance in the heart does not permit such a problem to occur
in the lungs, because the heart is flawlessly designed.
It provides for the transportation of many
needed materials to the organs:Clean blood coming from the heart
is transmitted to the tissues by the aorta and oxygen is carried
to the tissues by the vessels that reach all the cells. During its
circulation in the capillaries, blood distributes substances other
than oxygen such as hormones, food and other kind of nutrients to
It has valves arranging the direction of bloodstream
and working in perfect harmony: In the heart, there are valves
in the mouth of each chamber that prevent the blood from flowing
in the reverse direction. These valves between the atria and ventricles
are made of fibrous tissues and held by very thin muscles. Since
excess blood would leak towards the atriums if one of these muscles
stopped functioning, then serious heart disease would occur that
would cause even death. We come across with such a condition only
in cases of disease. A contrary condition never occurs.
The heart has an excellent design based on delicate balances,
with its four chambers pumpling blood to different parts of
the body without mixing two different kinds of bloods one with
another, and its openings functioning as safety valves.
It pumps the required amount of blood depending
on changing conditions: The amount of blood pumped by the heart
changes according to the needs of the body. Under normal conditions,
the heart beats 70 times a minute. While doing strenuous exercise,
during which the muscles need more oxygen, the heart increases the
amount of blood it pumps and raises its pace to 180 times per minute.
What would happen if this were not so? If the heart were to work
at a normal pace when the body needed more energy, the balance would
be harmed and the body would be injured. However, no such thing
occurs because of the perfect structure of the heart. Without making
us obliged to engage in its regulation, the heart regulates the
amount of blood to be pumped.
It functions away from our control, yet, exactly
as it should: The amount of blood to be pumped by the heart
is controlled by a special nervous system. Whether we are asleep
or awake, our nervous system by itself regulates the amount of blood
to be pumped and the speed of pumping. The structure of the heart
- that regulates without any intervention as to where, when and
how blood is needed - is flawless. Since the heart could not have
formed this system on its own, or this perfect system could not
have formed by coincidence, the heart is created. Allah, who has
infinite knowledge, designed it in the most flawless manner possible.
It operates with a special electrical system:
The muscle which makes the heart beat and which is called the
heart muscle, is different from all other muscles in the body. Ordinary
muscle cells in the body contract whenever stimulated by the nervous
system. However, heart muscle cells contract by themselves. Those
cells have the capability of initiating and spreading their own
electrical current. Although each cell possesses this capability,
none of them contracts independently from the others because then
they would function against the instructions of the electrical system
controlling them. In other words, they do not cause a chaos that
would disturb the regular pace of the heart, in which one part contracts
while the other relaxes. These cells, which are found in the form
of a chain, act together as per the instruction given by the electrical
system. Again, a flawless harmony is at work.
As seen in all of its features, the structure
of the heart shows us its flawless design, that is, its "being created",
and it thus presents us its Designer. It presents us Allah, the
Sustainer of all the worlds, Who is not seen, yet presents Himself
to us in everything He has created:
That is Allah, your Lord. There is no god
but Him, the Creator of everything. So worship Him. He is Responsible
for everything. (Surat al-An’am: 102)
Our hands, which enable us to perform some very
ordinary acts such as stirring a cup of tea, turning the pages of
a newspaper, or writing, are incredible engineering wonders.
The most important feature of the hand is its
ability to operate with high efficiency in very distinct activities,
despite having a standard structure. Being furnished with a great
number of muscles and nerves, our arms help our hands grip objects
strongly or softly according to different circumstances. For instance,
the human hand, although when not formed into a fist, can strike
a blow strike against an object with a weight of 45 kilograms. However,
our hand can also feel, between its thumb and forefinger, a sheet
of paper one tenth of a millimetre in thickness.
Obviously, these two acts are of a totally different
character. As one requires sensitivity, the other requires great
force. We, however, never even think for a second what we have to
do when we take a sheet of paper between our fingers or hit with
a fist. Nor do we think how to adjust the strength for these two
acts. We never say, "Now I will pick up some paper. Let me apply
a force of 500 g. Now I will lift this bucketful of water. Let me
apply a force of 40 kg." We even do not bother to think about these.
The reason is that the human hand is designed
to perform all these acts simultaneously. The hand is created together
with all its functions and all its related structures concurrently.
All the fingers in the hand are the appropriate
length and position, and proportionate to each other. For instance,
the strength of a fist formed with a hand having a normal thumb
is greater than that formed with a hand having a shorter thumb,
because with its pre-determined appropriate length, the thumb covers
other fingers and helps augment their power by supporting them.
There are many small details in the structure
of the hand: for instance, it has smaller structures besides the
muscles and nerves. The nails at the tip of the fingers are by no
means trivial accessories. When we try to pick a needle from the
floor, we use our nails as well as our fingers. The rough surface
comprising our fingertips and nails helps us in picking up small
objects. Last but not least, nails play a big role in the regulation
of the minute pressure fingers have to exert on the object they
Another distinctive feature of the hand is that
it does not get tired.
worlds of medicine and science spend a considerable effort on making
an artificial copy of the hand. The robotic hands so far manufactured
have the same performance as human hands in terms of power, yet
it is hard to say the same thing for sensitivity of touch, perfect
manoeuvrability, and the ability to do diverse jobs.
Many scientists agree that no robot hand can
be made having the complete functions of the hand. Engineer Hans
J. Schneebeli, who has designed the robotic hand known as "The Karlsruhe
Hand", stated that the more he worked on robotic hands, the more
he admired the human hand. He added that they still need a lot of
time to make possible even a certain number of the jobs accomplished
by a human hand.
The hand usually functions in co-ordination with
the eye. The signals reaching the eye are transmitted to the brain,
and the hand moves according to the command given by the brain.
These, of course, are completed in a very short time and without
making us spend a special effort to do them. Robotic hands, on the
other hand, can only rely either on sight or touch. Different commands
are needed for every move they make. In addition, robotic hands
cannot accomplish diverse functions. For instance, a robotic hand
playing the piano cannot hold a hammer, and a robotic hand holding
a hammer cannot hold an egg without breaking it. Some robotic hands
that have only lately been produced are able to perform 2-3 actions
together, but this is still very primitive when compared to the
abilities of the hand.
In addition, when you consider that the two hands
co-operate with each other in perfect harmony, the flawlessness
of the design of the hand becomes more explicit.
Allah designed the hand as an organ especially
for human beings. With all these aspects, it shows us the perfection
and uniqueness in Allah’s art of creation.
These excellent mechanisms in the human body generally
work without our knowledge or awareness of them. The beating of the
heart, the functions of the liver, the rejuvenation of the skin are
all away from our direct knowledge. The same is true for hundreds
of other organs not mentioned here. We are not even aware that our
kidneys filter blood, our stomachs digest the food we eat, the movement
of our intestines, or the perfect operation of our lungs that help
The human being realises the worth of his body
only when he is sick and his organs become dysfunctional.
How, then, has this perfect mechanism come into
being? It is unquestionably not so difficult for a conscientious
person with wisdom to comprehend and feel that this body is "created".
The claim of evolutionists that this body has
come into being because of coincidences is ridiculous, because they
assert that accumulation of coincidences bring an organism into
being. The human body, however, can only function with all its organs
intact. A human without a kidney, heart or intestine cannot live.
Even if these organs exist, a human cannot survive if they do not
Therefore, the human body must have come into
being as a whole in order to survive and carry on his generation.
That the human body has "come into being instantaneously and completely"
means that it is "created".
We created you so why do you not confirm
the truth? Have you thought about the sperm that you ejaculate?
Is it you who create it or are We the Creator? We have decreed death
for you and We will not be forestalled from replacing you with others
the same as you and re-forming you in a way you do not know. (Surat