The Formation Adventure of the Atom
The universe, whose vast dimension pushes the
limits of the human's comprehension, functions without fail, resting
on sensitive balances and within a great order and has done so since
the first moment of its formation. How this enormous universe has
come into being, where it leads to and how the laws that maintain
the order and balance within it work, have always been matters of
interest to people in all ages, and still are. Scientists made countless
researches into these subjects and produced various arguments and
theories. For scientists who measured the order and design in the
universe by using their reason and conscience, it has not been difficult
at all to explain this perfection. This is because Allah, the Almighty,
Who rules over the entire universe, created this perfect design
and this is obvious and clear to all people who can think and reason.
Allah proclaims this evident truth in the verses of the Qur'an:
In the creation of the heavens and the earth,
and the alternation of night and day, there are Signs for people
with intelligence. (Surat Al 'Imran:
Those scientists who ignore the evidence of creation, however, have
great difficulty in answering these never-ending questions. They
do not hesitate to take recourse to demagoguery, false theories
without any scientific basis, and, if forced into a corner, even
deceptions to defend theories that are entirely opposed to reality.
Yet, all developments that have taken place in science recently,
up until the outset of the 21st century, lead us to a single fact:
the universe was created from nothing by Allah, Who possesses superior
might and infinite wisdom.
The Creation Of The Universe
For centuries, people searched for an answer to the question of
"how the universe came into being". Thousands of models
of the universe have been put forward and thousands of theories
have been produced throughout history. However, a review of these
theories reveals that they all have at their core one of two different
models. The first is the concept of an infinite universe without
beginning, which no longer has any scientific basis. The second
is that the universe was created from nothing, which is currently
recognized by the scientific community as "the standard model".
The first model, which has proven not to be viable,
defended the proposition that the universe has existed for an infinite
time and will exist endlessly in its current state. This idea of
an infinite universe was developed in ancient Greece, and made its
way to the western world as a product of the materialistic philosophy
that was revived with Renaissance. At the core of the Renaissance
lay a re-examination of the works of ancient Greek thinkers. Thus,
materialist philosophy and the concept of an infinite universe defended
by this philosophy were taken off the dusty shelves of history by
philosophical and ideological concerns and presented to people as
if they were scientific facts.
Materialists like Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels vigorously embraced
this idea, which prepared an apparently solid ground for their materialist
ideologies, thereby playing an important role in introducing this
model to the 20th century.
According to this "infinite universe" model
which was popular during the first half of the 20th century, the
universe had no beginning or end. The universe had not been created
from nothing, nor would it ever be destroyed. According to this
theory, which also laid the basis for materialist philosophy, the
universe had a static structure. Yet, later scientific findings
revealed that this theory is totally wrong and unscientific. The
universe has not existed without beginning; it had a beginning and
was created from nothing.
| Sir Fred Hoyle
The idea that the universe is infinite, that is that
it had no beginning, has always been the starting point of irreligiousness
and ideologies that make the mistake of denying Allah. This is because
in their view, if the universe had no beginning, then there was
no creator either. Yet, science soon revealed with conclusive evidence
that these arguments of the materialists are invalid and that the
universe started with an explosion called the Big Bang. Coming into
being from nothing had only one meaning: "Creation". Allah,
the Almighty created the whole universe.
The renowned British astronomer Sir Fred Hoyle was
among those who were disturbed by this fact. With his "steady-state"
theory, Hoyle accepted that the universe was expanding and argued
that the universe was infinite in scale and without beginning or
end. According to this model, as the universe expanded, matter originated
spontaneously and in quantities as large as required. This theory,
which was based on extremely unworkable premises, and advanced by
the sole concern of supporting the idea of an "infinite universe
without beginning or end" was in direct opposition to the Big
Bang theory, which was scientifically proven closer to a great number
of observations. Hoyle and others continued to resist this but all
scientific development worked against them.
The Expansion of the Universe
and the Big Bang
| Georges Lemaître
In the 20th century, great strides were made in the
field of astronomy. First, the Russian physicist Alexandre Friedmann
discovered in 1922 that the universe did not have a static structure.
Starting out from Einstein's theory of relativity, Friedmann calculated
that even a tiny impulse might cause the universe to expand or contract.
Georges Lemaître, one of the most famous astronomers
of Belgium, was the first to recognise the importance of this calculation.
These calculations led him to conclude that the universe had a beginning
and that it was continuously expanding right from the outset. There
was another very important point Lemaître raised: according to him,
there should be a radiation surplus left over from the big bang
and this could be traced. Lemaître was confident that his explanations
were true although they initially did not find much support in the
scientific community. Meanwhile, further evidence that the universe
was expanding began to pile up. At that time, observing a number
of stars through his huge telescope, the American astronomer Edwin
Hubble discovered that the stars emitted a red shifted light depending
on their distances. With this discovery, which he made at the California
Mount Wilson Observatory, Hubble challenged all scientists who put
forward and defended the steady state theory, and shook the very
basis of the model of the universe held until then.
analysis of the light of the two stars of Alpha Centauri over
a period of time showed a series of changes in their spectra.
The way the red and blue shifts vary revealed a picture of
two stars completing orbits around each other once every 80
Hubble's findings depended on the physical rule that
the spectra of light beams travelling towards the point of observation
tend towards violet while the spectra of light beams moving away
from the point of observation tend towards red. This showed that
the celestial bodies observed from the Californian Mount Wilson
Observatory were moving away from the earth. Further observation
revealed that the stars and galaxies weren't just racing away from
us; they were racing away from each other as well. This movement
of celestial bodies proved once more that the universe is expanding.
In Stephen Hawking's Universe, David Filkin relates an interesting
point about these developments:
…Within two years, Lemaître heard the news he had
scarcely dared hope for. Hubble had observed that the light from
galaxies was red shifted, and, according to Doppler effect, this
had to mean the universe was expanding. Now it was only a matter
of time. Einstein was interested in Hubble's work anyway and resolved
to visit him at the Mount Wilson Observatory. Lemaître arranged
to give a lecture at the California Institute of Technology at the
same time, and managed to corner Einstein and Hubble together. He
argued his "primeval atom" theory carefully, step by step,
suggesting that the whole universe had been created "on a day
which had no yesterday." Painstakingly he worked through all
the mathematics. When he had finished he could not believe his ears.
Einstein stood up and announced that what he had just heard was
"the most beautiful and satisfying interpretation I have listened
to" and went on to confess that creating the "cosmological
constant" was "the biggest blunder" of his life.1
||According to the Doppler effect, if a galaxy
stays at a constant distance from the earth, the spectra of
light waves will appear in the "standard" position
(top). If the galaxy is moving away from us, the waves will
seem stretched and red shifted (middle). If the galaxy is moving
towards us, the waves will seem squashed up and blue shifted
The truth that made Einstein, who is considered one
of the most important scientists in history, jump to his feet was
the fact that the universe has a beginning.
Further observations on the expansion of the universe
gave way to new arguments. Starting from this point, scientists
ended up with a model of a universe that became smaller as one went
back in time, eventually contracting and converging at a single
point, as Lemaître had argued. The conclusion to be derived from
this model is that at some point in time, all matter in the universe
was crushed together in a single point-mass that had "zero
volume" because of its immense gravitational force. Our universe
came into being as the result of the explosion of this point-mass
that had zero volume and this explosion has come to be called the
The Big Bang pointed to another matter. To say that
something has zero volume is tantamount to saying that it is "nothing".
The whole universe is created from this "nothing". Furthermore,
this universe has a beginning, contrary to the view of materialism,
which holds that "the universe has existed from eternity".
Big Bang with Evidence
Once the fact that the universe started to form after a great
explosion was established, astrophysicists gave a further boost
to their researches. According to George Gamow, if the universe
was formed in a sudden, cataclysmic explosion, there ought to be
a definite amount of radiation left over from that explosion which
should be uniform throughout the universe.
In the years following this hypothesis, scientific findings followed
one another, all confirming the Big Bang. In 1965, two researchers
by the name of Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson chanced upon a form
of radiation hitherto unnoticed. Called "cosmic background
radiation", it was unlike anything coming from anywhere else
in the universe for it was extraordinarily uniform. It was neither
localised nor did it have a definite source; instead, it was distributed
equally everywhere. It was soon realised that this radiation is
the relic of the Big Bang, still reverberating since the first moments
of that great explosion. Gamow had been spot-on, for the frequency
of the radiation was nearly the same value that scientists had predicted.
Penzias and Wilson were awarded the Nobel Prize for their discovery.
It took only eight minutes for George Smoot and his NASA team to
confirm the levels of radiation reported by Penzias and Wilson,
thanks to the COBE space satellite. The sensitive sensors on board
the satellite earned a new victory for the Big Bang theory. The
sensors verified the existence of the hot, dense form remaining
from the first moments of the Big Bang. COBE captured evidentiary
remnants of the Big Bang, and the scientific community was compelled
to acknowledge it.
Other evidence had to do with the relative amounts of hydrogen and
helium in the universe. Calculations revealed that the proportion
of hydrogen-helium gasses in the universe is in accord with theoretical
calculations of what should remain after the Big Bang.
The gigantic horn antenna
at Bell Laboratories where Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson
discovered the cosmic background radiation. Penzias and Wilson
were awarded the Nobel Prize for this discovery in 1978.
The discovery of compelling evidence caused the Big
Bang theory to gain the complete approval of the scientific world.
In an article in its October 1994 issue, Scientific American noted
that "the Big Bang model was the only acknowledged model of
the 20th century"
Confessions were forthcoming one by
one from the names who had defended the "infinite universe"
concept for years. Dennis Sciama, who had defended the Steady-State
theory along with Fred Hoyle, described their predicament in the
face of the evidence for the Big Bang. He said that he had first
taken a stand along with Hoyle but, as evidence began to pile up,
he had to admit that the game was over and that the steady-state
theory had to be dismissed.2
Allah Created the Universe from Nothing
With ample evidence discovered by science, the thesis of an "infinite
universe" was tossed onto the scrap-heap of the history of
scientific ideas. Yet, more important questions were forthcoming:
what existed before the Big Bang? What force could have caused the
great explosion that resulted in a universe that did not exist before?
There is a single answer to be given to the question
of what existed before the Big Bang: Allah, the All-powerful and
the Almighty, Who created the earth and the heavens in great order.
Many scientists, be they believers or not, are obliged to admit
this truth. Although they may decline to admit this fact on scientific
platforms, their confessions in between the lines give them away.
Renowned atheist philosopher Anthony Flew says:
Notoriously, confession is good for
the soul. I will therefore begin by confessing that the Stratonician
atheist has to be embarrassed by the contemporary cosmological consensus.
For it seems that the cosmologists are providing a scientific proof
of what St. Thomas contended could not be proved philosophically;
namely, that the universe had a beginning. So long as the universe
can be comfortably thought of as being not only without end but
also beginning, it remains easy to urge that its brute existence,
and whatever are found to be its most fundamental features, should
be accepted as the explanatory ultimates. Although I believe that
it remains still correct, it certainly is neither easy nor comfortable
to maintain this position in the face of the Big Bang story. 3
Some scientists like the British materialist physicist
H. P. Lipson confess that they have to accept the Big Bang theory
whether they want it or not:
If living matter is not, then, caused
by the interplay of atoms, natural forces, and radiation, how has
it come into being?… I think, however, that we must…admit that the
only acceptable explanation is creation. I know that this is anathema
to physicists, as indeed it is to me, but we must not reject that
we do not like if the experimental evidence supports it.4
In conclusion, science points to a single reality whether materialist
scientists like it or not. Matter and time have been created by
a Creator, Who is All-Powerful and Who created the heavens, the
earth and all that is in between:
Almighty Allah. It is Allah who created the seven heavens and of
the earth the same number, the Command descending down through all
of them, so that you might know that Allah has power over all things
and that Allah encompasses all things in His knowledge. (Surat
1. David Filkin, Stephen Hawking's
Universe:The Cosmos Explained, Basic Books, October 1998, pp. 85-86
2. Stephen Hawking's A Brief History of Time A Reader's Companion
(Edited by Stephen Hawking; prepared by Gene Stone), New York, Bantam
Books, 1982, p. 62-63
3. Henry Margenau, Roy Abraham Vargesse, Cosmos, Bios, Theos, La Salla
IL: Open Court Publishing, 1992, p. 241
4. H. P. Lipson, "A Physicist Looks at Evolution", Physics
Bulletin, vol. 138, 1980, p. 138