The Equilibrium in the Explosion
The explosive vigour of
the universe is thus matched with almost unbelievable accuracy to
its gravitating power. The big bang was not evidently, any old bang,
but an explosion of exquisitely arranged magnitude.
Paul Davies, Professor of Theoretical Physics 17
In the first chapter we examined the universe's creation
from nothingness as a result of a great explosion. Let us now consider
some of the implications of this.
Scientists estimate that there are over 300 billion
galaxies in the whole universe. These galaxies have a number of
different forms (spiral, elliptical, etc) and each contains about
as many stars as the universe contains galaxies. One of these stars,
the Sun, has nine major planets rotating around in it in great harmony.
All of us live on the third of those planets counting from the sun.
about you: Does what you see appear to be a disordered jumble of
matter haphazardly scattered this way and that? Of course not. But
how could matter have formed organized galaxies if it had been dispersed
randomly? Why has matter accumulated at certain points and formed
stars? How could the delicate balance of our solar system have emerged
from a violent explosion? These are very important questions and
they lead us to the real question of how the universe was structured
after the Big Bang.
If the Big Bang was indeed
a such cataclysmic explosion then it is reasonable to expect that
matter should have been scattered everywhere at random. And yet
it is not. Instead it is organized into planets, and stars, and
galaxies, and clusters of galaxies, and superclusters of galaxies.
It is as if a bomb that exploded in a granary caused all the wheat
to fall into neat sacks and bales on the backs of trucks ready to
be delivered instead of showering the grains every which way. Fred
Hoyle, a staunch opponent of the Big Bang theory for years, expressed
his own surprise at this structure:
The big bang theory holds that the universe
began with a single explosion. Yet as can be seen below, an explosion
merely throws matter apart, while the big bang has mysteriously
produced the opposite effect- with matter clumping together in the
form of galaxies.18
That the matter produced by the Big Bang should
have formed such tidy and organized shapes is indeed an extraordinary
thing. The occurrence of such a harmony leads us to the realization
that the universe was the result of its perfect creation by Allah.
In this chapter we will examine and consider
this extraordinary perfection and excellence.
The Speed of the Explosion
People hearing of the Big Bang but not considering
the subject at length do not think about what an extraordinary plan
must lie behind this explosion. That's because the notion of an explosion
doesn't suggest harmony, plan, or organization to most people. In
fact there are a number of very puzzling aspects to the intricate
order in the Big Bang.
One of these puzzles has to do with the acceleration caused by the
explosion. When the explosion took place, matter certainly must have
begun moving at an enormous speed in every direction. But there is
another point that we need to pay attention to here. There must also
have been a very big attractive force at the first moment of the explosion:
an attractive force that was strong enough to gather the whole universe
into one point.
Two different and opposing forces are at work here.
The force of the explosion, driving matter outward and away, and
the force of attraction, trying to resist the first and pull everything
back together. The universe came into being because these two forces
were in equilibrium. If the attractive force had been greater than
the explosive, the universe would have collapsed. If the opposite
had been true, matter would have been splattered in every direction
in a way never to unite again.
Then how sensitive was this equilibrium? How
much "slack" could there have been between the two forces?
Paul Davies: "The evidence is strong
enough to acknowledge the existence of a conscious cosmic
The mathematical physicist Paul Davies, a professor
at the University of Adelaide in Australia, performed lengthy calculations
of the conditions that must have existed at the moment of the Big
Bang and came up with a result that can only be described as astonishing.
According to Davies, if the rate of expansion had differed by more
than 10-18 seconds (one quintillionth of a second), there would
have been no universe. Davies describes his conclusion:
Bilim Teknik (Science Technique, a Turkish scientific
periodical) quotes an article that appeared in Science in which the
phenomenal equilibrium that obtained in the initial phase of universe
Careful measurements puts the rate
of expansion very close to a critical value at which the universe
will just escape its own gravity and expand forever. A little
slower and the cosmos would collapse, a little faster and the
cosmic material would have long ago completely dispersed. It is
interesting to ask precisely how delicately the rate of expansion
has been "fine tuned" to fall on this narrow dividing line between
two catastrophes. If at time I S (by which the time pattern of
expansion was already firmly established) the expansion rate had
differed from its actual value by more than 10-18,
it would have been sufficient to throw the delicate balance out.
The explosive vigour of the universe is thus matched with almost
unbelievable accuracy to its gravitating power. The big bang was
not evidently, any old bang, but an explosion of exquisitely arranged
If the density of the universe
was a little bit more, in that case, according to Einstein's relativity
theory, the universe would not be expanding due to the attraction
forces of atomic particles but contracting, ultimately diminishing
to a spot. If the initial density had been a little bit less,
then the universe would rapidly be expanding, but in this case,
atomic particles would not be attracting each other and no stars
and no galaxies would ever have formed. Consequently, man would
never come into existence! According to the calculations, the
difference between the initial real density of the universe and
its critical density, which is unlikely to occur, is less than
one percent's one quadrillion. This is similar to place a pencil
in a position so that it can stand on its sharp end even after
one billion years… Furthermore, as the universe expands, this
equilibrium becomes more delicate.20
It is We Who have built
the universe with (Our creative) power, and, verily, it is
We Who are steadily expanding it.
(Surat adh-Dhariyat: 47)
Even Stephen Hawking, who tries hard to explain
away the creation of the universe as a series coincidences in A
Brief History of Time, acknowledges the extraordinary equilibrium
in the rate of expansion:
If the rate of expansion one second
after the big bang had been smaller by even one part in a hundred
thousand million million, the universe would have recollapsed before
it ever reached its present size. 21
What then does such a remarkable equilibrium as this
indicate? The only rational answer to that question is that it is
proof of conscious design and cannot possibly be accidental. Despite
his own materialist bent, Dr Davies admits this himself:
It is hard to resist
that the present structure of the universe, apparently so sensitive
to minor alterations in the numbers, has been rather carefully thought
out… The seemingly miraculous concurrence of numerical values that
nature has assigned to her fundamental constants must remain the
most compelling evidence for an element of cosmic design.22
The Four Forces
The speed of the Big Bang's explosion is only one
of the remarkable states of equilibrium at the initial moment of creation.
Immediately after the Big Bang, forces that underpin and organize
the universe we live in had to be numerically "just right" otherwise
there would have been no universe.
These are the "four fundamental forces" that are recognized
by modern physics. All structure and motion in the universe is governed
by these four forces, known as the gravitational force, the electromagnetic
force, the strong nuclear force, and the weak nuclear force. The
strong and weak nuclear forces operate only at the atomic scale.
The remaining two–the gravitational force and the electromagnetic
force–govern assemblages of atoms, in other words "matter". These
four fundamental forces were at work in the immediate aftermath
of the Big Bang and resulted in the creation of atoms and matter.
A comparison of those forces is enlightening for their
values are stunningly different from one another. Below they are
given in international standard units:
Strong nuclear force: 15
Weak nuclear force: 7.03 x 10-3
Electromagnetic force: 3.05 x 10-12
Gravitational force: 5.90 x 10-39
Notice how great are the differences in the strengths
of these four fundamental forces. The difference between the strongest
(strong nuclear force) and the weakest (gravitational force) is
about 25 followed by 38 zeros! Why should this be so?
The molecular biologist Michael Denton addresses
this question in his book, Nature's Destiny:
The molecular biologist Michael Denton
addresses an important point in his book, Nature's Destiny:
How the Laws of Biology Reveal Purpose in the Universe. According
to Denton, the universe was created and specially designed
to make human life possible.
If, for example, the gravitational
force was a trillion times stronger, then the universe would be
far smaller and its life history far shorter. An average star would
have a mass a trillion times less than the sun and a life span of
about one year. On the other hand, if gravity had been less powerful,
no stars or galaxies would have ever formed. The other relationships
and values are no less critical. If the strong force had been just
slightly weaker, the only element that would be stable would be
hydrogen. No other atoms could exist. If it had been slightly stronger
in relation to electromagnetism, then an atomic nucleus consisting
of only two protons would be a stable feature of the universe-which
would mean there would be no hydrogen, and if any stars or galaxies
evolved, they would be very different from the way they are. Clearly,
if these various forces and constants did not have precisely the
values they do, there would be no stars, no supernovae, no planets,
no atoms, no life. 23
Paul Davies comments on how the laws of physics provide
for conditions ideal for people to live:
Had nature opted for a slightly
different set of numbers, the world would be a very different place.
Probably we would not be here to see it…Recent discoveries about
the primeval cosmos oblige us to accept that the expanding universe
has been set up in its motion with a cooperation of astonishing
Arno Penzias, who was the first, along with Robert
Wilson to detect the cosmic background radiation (for which discovery
the pair received a Nobel prize in 1965), comments on the beautiful
design in the universe:
Astronomy leads us to a
unique event, a universe which was created out of nothing, one with
the very delicate balance needed to provide exactly the conditions
required to permit life, and one which has underlying (one might
say "supernational") plan.25
The scientists we have just quoted have all drawn an
important conclusion from their observations. Examining and thinking
about the incredible balances and their beautiful order in the design
of universe inevitably leads one to a truth: There exists in this
universe a superior design and a perfect harmony. Unquestionably
the Author of this design and harmony is Allah, Who has created
everything flawlessly. Allah draws our attention in one of His verses
to the order in the creation of the universe, planned, and computed
in every detail:
He to whom the kingdom of the heavens and
the earth belongs. He does not have a son and He has no partner
in the Kingdom. He created everything and determined it most exactly.
(Surat al-Furqan: 2)
The Mathematics of Probability Refutes "Coincidence"
What has been said so far shows the extraordinary
balances among the forces that make human life possible in this
universe. The speed of the Big Bang's explosion, the values of the
four fundamental forces, and all the other variables that we will
be examining in the chapters ahead and which are vital for existence
have been arranged according to an extraordinary precision.
Let us now make a brief digression and consider
the coincidence theory of materialism. Coincidence is a mathematical
term and the possibility of an event's occurrence can be calculated
using the mathematics of probability. Let's do so.
PROBABILITY OF THE OCCURRENCE OF A UNIVERSE IN WHICH LIFE
calculations of British mathematician Roger Penrose show
that the probability of universe conducive to life occurring
by chance is in 1010123.
The phrase "extremely unlikely" is inadequate to describe
Taking the physical variables into account, what
is the likelihood of a universe giving us life coming into existence
by coincidence? One in billions of billions? Or trillions of trillions
of trillions? Or more?
Roger Penrose, a famous British
mathematician and a close friend of Stephen Hawking, wondered about
this question and tried to calculate the probability. Including
what he considered to be all variables required for human beings
to exist and live on a planet such as ours, he computed the probability
of this environment occurring among all the possible results of
the Big Bang.
According to Penrose, the odds
against such an occurrence were on the order of 1010123
It is hard even to imagine
what this number means. In math, the value 10123 means
1 followed by 123 zeros. (This is, by the way, more than the total
number of atoms 1078 believed to exist in the whole universe.)
But Penrose's answer is vastly more than this: It requires 1 followed
by 10123 zeros.
Or consider: 103
means 1,000, a thousand. 10103 is a number that that has
1 followed by 1000 zeros. If there are six zeros, it's called a million;
if nine, a billion; if twelve, a trillion and so on. There is not
even a name for a number that has 1 followed by 10123 zeros.
"This number tells us how precise the Creator's aim must have
In practical terms, in mathematics,
a probability of 1 in 1050 means "zero probability".
Penrose's number is more than trillion trillion trillion times less
than that. In short, Penrose's number tells us that the 'accidental"
or "coincidental" creation of our universe is an impossibility.
Concerning this mind-boggling
number Roger Penrose comments:
This now tells
how precise the Creator's aim must have been, namely to an accuracy
of one part in 1010123. This is an extraordinary figure.
One could not possibly even write the number down in full in the
ordinary denary notation: it would be 1 followed by 10123
successive 0's. Even if we were to write a 0 on each separate proton
and on each separate neutron in the entire universe- and we
could throw in all the other particles for good measure- we should
fall far short of writing down the figure needed. 26
The numbers defining the design
and plan of the universe's equilibrium play a crucial role and exceed
comprehension. They prove that the universe is by no means the product
of a coincidence, and show us "how precise the Creator's aim must
have been" as Penrose stated.
In fact in order to recognize
that the universe is not a "product of coincidences" one does not
really need any of these calculations at all. Simply by looking
around himself, a person can easily perceive the fact of creation
in even the tiniest details of what he sees. How could a universe
like this, perfect in its systems, the sun, the earth, people, houses,
cars, trees, flowers, insects, and all the other things in it ever
have come into existence as the result of atoms falling together
by chance after an explosion? Every detail we peer at shows the
evidence of Allah's existence and supreme power. Only people who
reflect can grasp these signs.
In the creation of the heavens and earth,
and the alternation of the night and day, and the ships which sail
the seas to people's benefit, and the water which Allah sends down
from the sky- by which He brings the earth to life when it was dead
and scatters about in it creatures of every kind - and the varying
direction of the winds, and the clouds subservient between heaven
and earth, there are Signs for people who use their intellect. (Surat
Seeing the Plain Truth
20th-century science has come
up with categorical evidence that the universe was created by Allah.
The anthropic principle that we mentioned before reveals every detail
of a universe that has been designed for mankind to live in and in
which there is no place for chance.
The interesting part is that
the ones who discovered all this and came to the conclusion that
the universe couldn't possibly have come into being by accident
are the very same people who defend the philosophy of materialism.
Scientists such as Paul Davies, Arno Penzias, Fred Hoyle and Roger
Penrose are not pious men and they certainly had no intention of
proving Allah's existence as they pursued their work. One can imagine
that they reached their conclusions about the design of the universe
by a superior power most unwillingly.
The American astronomer George
Greenstein confesses this in his book The Symbiotic Universe:
could this possibly have come to pass (that the laws of physics
conform themselves to life)?…As we survey all the evidence, the
thought insistently arises that some supernatural agency - or, rather
Agency- must be involved. Is it possible that suddenly, without
intending to, we have stumbled upon scientific proof of the existence
of a Supreme Being? Was it God who stepped in and so providentially
crafted the cosmos for our benefit?27
An atheist, Greenstein disregards
the plain truth; nevertheless he cannot keep from wondering. Other,
less prejudiced scientists on the other hand, readily admit that the
universe must have been specially designed for mankind to live in.
The American astrophysicist Hugh Ross ends his article "Design and
the Anthropic Principle" with these words:
intelligent, transcendent Creator must have brought the universe
into existence. An intelligent, transcendent Creator must have designed
the universe. An intelligent, transcendent Creator must have designed
planet Earth. An intelligent, transcendent Creator must have designed
Thus science proves the reality
of creation. Certainly there is Allah and He has created everything
around us–the seen and the unseen. He is the sole Creator of the extraordinary
and outstanding equilibrium and design of the heavens and Earth.
It has come
such a pass that today, materialism has the flavor of a superstitious,
unscientific system of belief. The American geneticist Robert Griffiths
jokingly remarked "If we need an atheist for a debate, I go to the
philosophy department. The physics department isn't much use."29
To sum up:
Every physical law and every physical constant in this universe
has been specifically designed to enable human beings to exist and
live. In his book The Cosmic Blueprint, Davies states this truth
in the last paragraph, "The impression of Design is overwhelming."30
Doubtlessly, the design of the
universe is evidence of Allah's power to establish. The precise
balances and all the human beings and other creatures are the evidence
of Allah's supreme power and act of creation. This result discovered
by modern science is just a reworking of a truth revealed fourteen
centuries ago in the Qur'an:
Your Lord is Allah, Who created the heavens and
the efarth in six days and then settled Himself firmly on the Throne.
He covers the day with the night and, each pursuing the other urgently;
and the sun and moon and stars are subservient to His command. Both
creation and command belong to Him. Blessed be Allah, the Lord of
all worlds. (Surat al-Araf: 54)
17. Paul Davies, Superforce:
The Search for a Grand Unified Theory of Nature, 1984, p. 184
18. Fred Hoyle, The Intelligent Universe, London,
1984, p. 184-185
19. Paul Davies, Superforce: The Search for a Grand
Unified Theory of Nature, 1984, p. 184
20. Bilim ve Teknik (Science and Technics )
201, p. 16
21. Stephen Hawking, A Brief History Of Time, Bantam
Press, London: 1988, p. 121-125
22. Paul Davies. God and the New Physics. New York:
Simon & Schuster, 1983, p. 189
23. Michael Denton, Nature's Destiny: How the Laws
of Biology Reveal Purpose in the Universe, The New York: The Free
Press, 1998, p. 12-13
24. Paul Davies. The Accidental Universe, Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 1982, Foreword.
25. Hugh Ross, The Creator and the Cosmos, p. 122-23
26. Roger Penrose, The Emperor's New Mind, 1989;
Michael Denton, Nature's Destiny, The New York: The Free Press, 1998,
27. George Greenstein, The Symbiotic Universe, p.
28. Hugh Ross, Design and the Anthropic Principle,
Reasons To Believe, CA, 1988
29. Hugh Ross, The Creator and the Cosmos, p. 123
30. Paul Davies, The Cosmic Blueprint, London: Penguin
Books, 1987, p. 203