Titles of Egyptian Rulers in the Qur'an

Moses was not the only prophet who lived in the lands of Egypt in the history of ancient Egypt. The Prophet Joseph had lived in Egypt long before the time of Moses.

We encounter a certain parallel while reading about the stories of Moses and Joseph. While addressing the Egyptian ruler at the time of Joseph, the word "malik" (the King) is used in the Qur'an:

"The King (malik) said, 'Bring him (Joseph) to me straight away! so I may draw him very close to me.' When he had spoken with him, he declared, 'Today you are trusted, established in our sight.'"
(The Qur'an, 12:54)

In contrast, the ruler at Moses' time is referred to as the "Pharaoh":

"We gave Moses nine Clear Signs. Ask the tribe of Israel about when he came to them and Pharaoh said to him, 'Moses, I think you are bewitched.'"
(The Qur'an, 17:101)

Historical records available today show us the reason for the different nomenclature of these rulers. The word "pharaoh" was originally the name given to the royal palace in ancient Egypt. The rulers of the old dynasty did not use the title. The use of the word pharaoh as the title of the ruler did not start until the "New Kingdom" era of Egyptian history. This period started with the 18th dynasty (1539-1292 BC), and by the 20th dynasty (945-730 BC) the word "pharaoh" was adopted as title of respect.

Therefore the miraculous nature of the Qur'an is manifested here once again: Joseph lived at the time of the Old Kingdom, and hence the word "malik" was used for the Egyptian ruler rather than "pharaoh". On the contrary, since Moses lived at the time of the New Kingdom, the ruler of Egypt is addressed as "pharaoh".

There is no doubt that one has to have a knowledge of the history of Egypt in order to make such a distinction. However, the history of Ancient Egypt was completely forgotten by the 4th century, as hieroglyphics could no longer be understood, and was not rediscovered until the 19th century. Therefore, there was no in-depth knowledge of Egyptian history available when the Qur'an was revealed. This fact is yet another one of countless pieces of evidence proving that the Qur'an is the word of God.

PART ONE: The Scientific Miracles of the Qur'an: Introduction
The Coming of the Universe into Existence
The Expansion of the Universe
The Splitting Asunder of "The Heavens and Earth"
The Roundness of the Earth
The Protected Roof
The Returning Sky
The Layers of the Atmosphere
The Function of Mountains
The Movement of Mountains
The Miracle in the Iron
The Pairs in Creation
The Relativity of Time
The Proportion of Rain
The Formation of Rain
The Fecundating Winds
The Seas not Mingling with One Another
Darkness in the Seas, and Internal Waves
The Region that Controls Our Movements
The Birth of A Human
Mother's Milk
The Identity in the Fingerprint
PART TWO: The Information Given About the Future in the Qur'an: Introduction
The Victory of Byzantium
PART THREE: The Historical Miracles of the Qur'an
The Word "Haman" in the Qur'an

Titles of Egyptian Rulers in the Qur'an
Conclusion: The Qur'an is the Word of God
This site is based on the works of Harun Yahya.
2004 Harun Yahya International. http://www.harunyahya.com