Blood: Life-Giving Fluid
Crucial Functions of Blood
Blood is a liquid that is created to give our bodies
life. As long as it circulates within the body, it warms, cools,
feeds and protects by cleansing the body of toxic substances. It
is almost solely responsible for communication within our bodies.
In addition, it immediately repairs any fractures in the walls of
veins and so the system is rejuvenated.
“We created you so why do you not confirm
(Surat al-Waqi'ah: 57)
On average, there is 1.32 gallons (5 litres) of blood
in the body of a human weighing 132 pounds (60 kilograms). The heart
can make this amount of blood circulate in the body easily within
a minute. However, while running or exercising, this rate of circulation
can increase to five times as high. Blood flows everywhere: from
the roots of the hair to the toes, inside veins of varying sizes.
The veins have been created of such a flawless structure that no
clogging or sediments are formed. A variety of nutrients and heat
are carried through this complex system.
The air that we breathe is the most crucial substance
for our survival. The oxygen is as necessary for the cells' burning
of sugars in energy production as it is for setting a log on fire.
This is why oxygen has to be carried from the lungs to the cells.
The blood circulatory system, resembling a complicated network of
pipelines, serves this very purpose.
The longest arteries have been created
to have the strongest structure since they are responsible
for delivering the blood rich in oxygen and nutrients to all
corners of the body. Veins are responsible for carrying blood
from the organs of the body to the heart. Capillaries, on
the other hand, have a perfect design as they distribute the
blood to the remotest places.
Haemoglobin molecules inside the red blood cells carry
the oxygen. Each one of the disk-shaped red blood cells carries
about three hundred million haemoglobin molecules. The red blood
cells display a flawless working order. They not only carry the
oxygen, but also release it wherever it is necessary, e.g. in a
working muscle cell. Red blood cells deliver oxygen to tissues,
carry the carbon dioxide, which is produced after the burning of
sugar, back to the lungs and then leave it there. Following this,
they again bind to oxygen and take it to the tissues.
A Pressure Balanced Fluid
Haemoglobin molecules also carry nitrogen monoxide (NO)
gas in addition to oxygen. If this gas were not present in blood,
its pressure would change constantly. Haemoglobin also regulates
the amount of oxygen to be delivered to tissues by means of nitrogen
monoxide. Amazingly, the source of this 'regulation" is nothing
but a molecule, i.e. a mere collection of atoms that does not have
a brain, eyes or conscious mind. Regulation of our bodies by a collection
of atoms, of course, is a sign of the infinite wisdom of Allah Who
created our bodies without flaws.
If it were not for
the heart, blood would have been a stale, thick red fluid
(above on the right). However, the heart pumps blood into
the remotest portions of the body (above on the left)
A layer of special muscle
tissue wraps the blood vessels. When the muscle contracts,
the vessel becomes narrower and increases the blood pressure.
The picture to the right is a section of a narrowed vessel.
This is why the interior of the vessel is corrugated (above
on the left). Around the vessel, there are muscle tendons
(red) and a nerve (blue).
Cells of Ideal Design
Red blood cells make up the majority of all blood cells.
An adult male blood contains thirty billion red cells, which would
be enough to cover almost half the surface of a soccer field. These
cells give colour to our blood and therefore to our skin.
Red cells look like discs. Due to their incredible flexibility,
they can squeeze through capillaries and the minutest holes. If
they were not so flexible, they would surely be stuck in various
areas of the body. A capillary is normally four to five micrometres
in diametre, whereas a red cell is about 7.5 micrometres (one micrometre
is one thousandth of a millimetre, which is 0.000039 inch).
What would happen if red cells were not created with
such flexibility? The researchers of diabetes gave some answers
to this question. In diabetic patients, red blood cells loose their
flexibility. This situation frequently gives way to clogging with
inflexible red blood cells in the delicate tissues of the patients'
eyes, which can lead to blindness.
Automatic Emergency System
The lifespan of a red blood cell is about 120 days after
which they are removed by the spleen. This loss is balanced by the
continuous production of new cells. Under normal conditions, 2.5
million red blood cells are generated per second, a number which
can be increased if necessary. A hormone called 'erythropoietin"
regulates the rate of generation. For example, as a result of heavy
bleeding due to accident or nose bleeds, the loss is immediately
balanced. In addition, the rate of generation is increased if the
oxygen content of the air is reduced. For instance, while climbing
at very high altitudes, due to the continuously declining oxygen
content, the body automatically takes this action in order to make
the most efficient use of the oxygen available.
Perfect Transportation System
The circulatory system feeds each one
of the hundred trillion cells that constitute the human body.
In the figure, the red vessels represent oxygenated blood
and the blue depict the deoxygenated blood.
The fluid portion of blood called plasma carries numerous
other substances present in the body apart from just blood cells.
Plasma is a clear yellowish fluid, which comprises 5% of the normal
body weight. In this fluid, 90% of which is water, salts, minerals,
carbo-hydrates, fats and hundreds of different types of proteins
are suspended. Some of the proteins in the blood are transport proteins,
which bind lipids and carry them to tissues. If the proteins did
not in this way carry the lipids, the lipids would randomly float
anywhere, giving way to fatal health problems.
Hormones in the plasma take on the role of special couriers.
They facilitate com-munication between organs and cells by means
of chemical messages.
Albumin is the most populous hormone in the plasma, which
is in a sense a transporter. It binds lipids such as cholesterol,
hormones, billirubin, a toxic yellow bile pigment, or medicines
like penicilin. It leaves the poisonous substances in the liver
and takes other nutrients and hormones to wherever they are needed.
When all these things are considered, it becomes clear
that the body is created in an extremely detailed way. The abilities
of a single protein to distinguish between lipid, hormone and medicine,
and to determine not only the locations in need of them but also
the amounts to be delivered, are all indications of flawless design.
Furthermore, these surprising examples are only few out of dozens
of thousands of different biochemical events taking place in a body.
All of the trillions of molecules in the body work in a marvellous
harmony. And, in fact, all of these molecules spring from the division
of a single cell that forms in the womb of a mother. It is clear
that this miraculous system of the human body is a wonderful
artistry of Allah, Who created man from a single drop of water.
Special Control Mechanisms
Nutrients have to cross from the arteries through the
artery wall, in order to penetrate into the necessary tissues. Although
the artery wall has very small pores, no substance can penetrate
it by itself. It is the blood pressure that facilitates this penetration.
However, nutrients crossing over into the tissues in larger quantities
than necessary causes inflammation in the tissues. Therefore, there
is a special mechanism instituted for balancing blood pressure and
withdrawing fluid back to the blood. This is the responsibility
of albumin, which is larger than the pores in the artery wall and
numerous enough in the blood to suck up the water like a sponge.
If there were no albumin in the body, it would swell like a dry
bean left in water.
On the contrary, materials in the blood should not enter
the tissues of the brain uncontrolled, since unwanted substances
can severely damage nerve cells (neurons). Therefore, the brain
is protected against all possible scenarios of harm. Dense cell
layers close off pores. All substances are required to pass through
these layers as if passing through a security checkpoint, which
facilitates a balanced flow of nutrients into the most sensitive
organ of the whole body.
If a blood clot (above on
the left) forms in the coronary veins of the heart and continues
to enlarge, it leads to a heart attack. In some situations
due to blood pressure, heart tissue is ruptured. Blood gushes
out of the heart as if spraying from a hose (above on the
Thermostat in the Body
The Blood Clotting Mechanism: When a
wound starts bleeding on our bodies, an enzyme called thromboplastin
that is released from damaged tissue cells combines with the
calcium and prothrombin in the blood. As a result of the chemical
reaction, the resulting mesh of threads form a protective
layer, which solidifies eventually. The top layer of cells
eventually die, becoming cornified, so forming the scab. Underneath
the scab, or protective layer, new cells are being formed.
When damaged cells are completely replaced, the scab drops
Apart from toxins, red blood cells, vitamins and other
substances, blood also carries heat, a by-product of energy generation
in the cells. Distributing and balancing body heat in accordance
with the outside temperature is vitally important. If there were
no heat distribution system in our bodies, our arms would overheat
and the rest of the body would be cool when the arm muscles are
used, which would greatly damage the metabolism. This is why heat
is evenly distributed throughout the body, which is facilitated
solely by the circulatory system. In decreasing the body-heat that
is distributed all over the body, the perspiration system is activated.
In addition, blood vessels enlarge under the skin, enabling excess
heat in the blood to be transmitted to the outside air. This is
why when we run or do other high-energy activities, our faces become
red. Blood circulation is as responsible in preservation of the
body heat as in cooling. In colder temperatures, the blood vessels
under our skin shrink, which serves to reduce the amount of blood
in the area where heat escape is most probable and hence to keep
cooling to a minimum. The reason for a person's face turning white
when cold is the precaution that the body automatically takes.42
Everything taking place in the blood is extremely complicated
and intertwined. Everything has been created flawlessly down to
the smallest detail. In fact, there is such a wonderfully intricate
balance in the bloodstream that the smallest breakdown could potentially
cause very serious complications. Blood has been created with all
its necessary properties by the One Creator in a moment. This Creator,
the owner of superior knowledge and power, is Allah:
Your god is Allah alone, there is no god but Him.
He encompasses all things in His knowledge. (Surah Ta Ha:98)
A System Without Room for Smallest Error: Blood
Everybody knows that bleeding will eventually stop when
there is a cut or when an old wound starts bleeding again. Where
the bleeding is, a blood clot forms that hardens and heals the wound
in due time. This may be a simple and normal phenomenon for you,
but biochemists have shown through their research that this actually
is the result of a very complicated system at work. The lack of
any one component of this system or any damage to it would render
the whole process useless.
Blood has to coagulate in the right time and place and
when normal conditions are restored, the clot should vanish. The
system functions flawlessly down to the minutest detail.
If there is bleeding, the clot should form immediately
in order to prevent the creature from dying. Furthermore, the clot
should cover the entire wound and, more importantly, should only
form over, and remain right on top of, the wound. Otherwise all
the blood of the creature could coagulate and cause its death, which
is why the clot should form at the right time at the right place.
The smallest elements of the bone marrow, the blood platelets
or thrombocytes, are crucial. These cells are the main elements
behind the coagulation of blood. A protein, called the Von Willebrand
factor, ensures that, in their continuous patrol of the blood stream,
these platelets do not miss the place of the injury. The platelets
that become entangled in the location of the injury release a substance
that collects countless others to the same place. These cells eventually
shore up the open wound. The platelets die after performing their
duty in locating the wound. Their sacrifice is only a part of the
coagulation system in the blood.
Thrombin is another protein that facilitates coagulation
of blood. This substance is produced only at the location of the
wound. This production must be neither more nor less than necessary,
and has also to start and stop exactly at the required times. There
are more than twenty body chemicals called enzymes that have roles
in the production of thrombin. These enzymes can trigger its reproduction
or halt it. The process is under so much scrutiny that thrombin
only forms when there is a real wound to the tissues. As soon as
the enzymes of coagulation reach a satisfactory level in the body,
fibrinogens that are composed of proteins are formed. In a very
short while, a mesh of fibres form a web, which is formed at the
location of the escaping blood. In the meantime, patrolling platelets
continue to become entangled and accumulate at the same location.
What is called a clot is the plug that is formed due to this accumulation.
When the wound totally heals, the clot dissolves.
The system that enables formation of the clot, determining
its extent, strengthening or dissolving the formed clot undoubtedly,
has an absolute irreducible complexity.43
The system works flawlessly down to the minutest detail.
What would happen if there were small problems within
this perfectly functioning system? For example, if there was coagulation
in the blood even without a wound, or if the clot could easily break
off from the wound? There is a single answer to these questions:
in such cases the bloodstream to the most vital and intricate organs,
such as heart, brain and lungs, would be clogged with clots, which
would inevitably bring death.
In reality, this shows us one more time that the human
body is flawlessly designed. It is impossible to explain the clotting
system of the blood through the hypothesis of coincidence or "gradual
development" as asserted by the theory of evolution. Such a carefully
engineered and calculated system as this is indisputable evidence
of the perfection in creation. Allah, Who created us and placed
us on this earth, has created our bodies with this system, which
protects us in many cases of injury that we encounter throughout
The clotting of blood is very important not only for
visible injuries but also for the ruptures of capillaries in our
bodies that happen all the time. Although unnoticed, there are continuously
small internal bleedings. When hitting an arm against a door or
sitting down too heavily, hundreds of capillaries are ruptured.
These bleedings are immediately stopped by means of the clotting
system and the capillaries are reconstructed in their normal condition.
If the impact is more serious, then the internal bleeding is stronger,
giving way to the bruising commonly termed "turning purple". A human
lacking the coagulation system would have to avoid even the smallest
impacts. Haemophilic patients, having defective coagulation systems,
live their lives like that. Patients with advanced haemophilia unfortunately
do not survive too long. Even small internal bleedings, inflicted
by a simple slip and fall, could be enough to end their lives. Due
to this simple reality, each individual should consider the miracle
of creation within his/her own body and be thankful to Allah, Who
created that body flawlessly. This body is a blessing to us from
Allah, a single cell of which we cannot even reproduce. When addressing
mankind, Allah says:
"We created you, so why do you not confirm the
truth?" (Surat al-Waqi'a: 57)
The Blood Coagulation Mechanism
The figure below illustrates
the coagulation mechanism of the blood. The clot is generated
as a result of the chemical reactions of a series of substances
in a certain order. For dissolution of the clot, a similarly
complicated process takes place.
42. R. Von Bredow, Geo, November
43. Michael Behe, Darwin's Black Box, pp. 79-97.