Whether by means of the wind, or whether by means of
other carriers, male pollens which reach female flower organs have
reached the end of their journey. Everything is ready for the forming
of the seed. The most important step in sexual reproduction is seed
formation. It will be useful to examine this formation, starting
right from the general structure of the flower.
In the center of most flowers are one or more carpels,
the "female" reproductive parts. The carpel has a swollen end, called
the stigma, under which there is a stalk, called the style, and
at the bottom an ovary, which contains the blueprint for the seeds.
Pollen coming from male organs lands on the stigma, the
surface of which is covered with a sticky liquid, and then reaches
the ovary by means of the style. This sticky liquid has a very important
function. As long as the pollen grains are unable to reach the ovary
beneath the style, they will not be able to fertilise the seeds.
This liquid ensures that by making them stick together the pollen
does not go to waste. The seed is formed only when male and female
reproductive cells come together.
After landing on the stigma, each individual pollen,
in other words, each male reproductive cell, develops a thin tube
downwards, and enters the ovary through the style. There are two
sperm cells in each one of these pollen tubes. The tube grows down,
and enters the ovary, and the sperm cells come free. In this way
the nucleus of one of the sperm cells unites with the egg in the
ovary. This fertilized egg cell develops into the embryo, which
will form the seek. The nucleus of the second sperm cell unites
with the two nuclei of the central cell and they form a specialized
tissue which surrounds and nourishes the embryo. This development
is known as fertilisation.
After fertilisation, the egg is wrapped up in a coat,
and the embryo enters upon a kind of rest period, and grows to become
a seed with the food sources stored around it.
In every seed which is formed by the joining of male
and female sex cells, there is an embryo plant and a supply of food.
This is a very important detail for the development of the seed,
because, in the early stages, when it is underground, the seed has
no roots or leaves able to produce nutrients, and it will need a
food source to be able to grow during this time.
The embryo and the food store surrounding it are actually
what we call fruit. These structures possess high levels of proteins
and carbohydrates, because their function is to feed the seeds.
This being the case, they form an indispensable source of nourishment
for both human beings and other living things. Every fruit possesses
the best qualities for protecting and nourishing the seeds it contains.
The fleshy part, a quantity of water, and the structure of the external
skin have the most effective forms for protecting the seed.
There is another important detail here. Each plant can
fertilise only another plant of the same species. If a plant's pollen
lands on the stigma of another species, the plant understands this
and does not allow the pollen to grow out a tube to reach to its
ovary; as a result the seed does not develop because there is no
For instance, if pollen from wheat flowers is carried
to an apple tree, that tree will not produce apples. It will be
useful at this point to stop and reflect a little on the extraordinary
nature of this. The flower of one species of plant recognises the
pollen coming from the flower of a plant of the same species. If
it is from its own species, it may start the process of fertilisation.
If the pollen is not from its own species, the plant will not begin
the fertilisation process. So how did the stigma of the female flower,
which can distinguish pollen from its own species according to certain
criteria, learn to carry out this identification? How does it know
that it has to close down its mechanism against foreign pollen?
There is no doubt that the intelligence which controls the plant's
every detail designed this mechanism in the flower in the most subtle
way so as to guarantee the perpetuation of the species from generation
What kind of environment the embryo seed would develop
in, what it would require during the stages of its development,
what it would find when it emerged from the soil, what kind of protection
it would need, and all other exigencies were thought of in advance,
and the seed was designed with these needs in mind. The external
layers protecting the seeds (seed coats) are generally very hard.
This structure protects the seed from any external threats it will
face and exhibits modifications according to the environment in
which it is found. For example, in the final stage of the development
of some seeds a resistant waxy substance forms on the external surfaces,
thanks to which the seeds become resistant to the effects of water
And the flawless structures in a flower's life do not
end here. The seed coats may be covered with different substances
according to the species of the plant; for instance, a single bean
will be covered in a thin membrane, and a cherry seed will be protected
by a hard, woody coat. The coats of seeds which have to be resistant
to water are harder and thicker than others. Again, seeds have been
given very different shapes and sizes according to their species.
The amount of nourishment is different between those seeds which
have to last for a long time before sprouting (for example coconut
seeds) and those which begin to sprout a short while after coming
into contact with water (melon, water melon, etc.).
As we have seen, seeds have very intricate systems to
enable them reproduce easily and to endure without any breakdown.
The intelligence to be seen in each stage of the systems specially
designed for plants to reproduce, is a clear proof that these systems
were created by God, the possessor of superior knowledge.
Substances such as vitamins, proteins,
and carbohydrates in fruit both protect and feed the seed,
and provide an important source of food for other living things.
There is an unbelievable variety of fruit and vegetables,
which all come from the same dry soil and are watered with
the same water. Furthermore, their shapes, tastes, and scents
are each a wonder of planning.
Time to Spread: the Dispersal of Seeds
The methods employed by plants when spreading their seeds,
each one of which is most effective, vary with the structure of
the seeds of each plant. For example, seeds which are small and
light enough to fly on a very slight breeze, immediately fall off
when stirred by the wind and are fertilised without any difficulty.
It is enough for some plants to reproduce for their seeds simply
to fall to the ground. Others disperse their seeds by a natural
catapult method, in other words, they fire their seeds off. This
is brought about by the release of the tension which forms when
the seed is growing inside its coat. The seed coats of some plants
split open after drying in the sun, and others open and disperse
their contents when affected by such external factors as the wind
The picture at the top left shows seeds
flying out of the poplar tree.In the other pictures, plants'
fruits open and split when they are ripe and thus reveal their
seeds with their silky hairs. These silky hairs have been
specially designed to move easily in the air.
Plants Which Disperse Their Seeds by Bursting
The Mediterranean Squirting Cucumber
When we examine the methods employed in the dispersal
process, which is exceedingly important to the reproduction of plants,
we see that they are built upon the most sensitive of balances.
For instance, some plants, such as the Mediterranean squirting cucumber,
use their own power to spread their seeds. As Mediterranean squirting
cucumbers begin to ripen, they begin to fill with a slimy juice.
Some time later the pressure exerted by this liquid builds up to
such an extent that the outer skin of the cucumber cannot resist
it and bursts off its stalk. When this happens, the cucumber sprays
the liquid inside it like the trail of a rocket being fired into
the air. Behind the cucumber comes a trail of slime and with it,
The mechanisms here are very sensitive; the seed-pods
fill with liquid when the cucumber begins to fully mature, and the
explosion takes place at the time when maturation is complete. If
this system began to work prematurely, the cucumber's bursting off
its stalk before the seeds were formed would serve no purpose. Such
an eventuality would mean the end of that species of plant. But
no such risk presents itself, thanks to its pre-planned perfect
timing. The claim that these mechanisms, which have each had to
be present right from the start, evolved as the result of a period
of change lasting hundreds, thousands, and even millions of years,
is certainly not founded on intelligence, logic, or science.
The seed-pods, the liquid inside them, the seeds, the
maturing of the seeds-everything must come into existence at the
same time. The uninterrupted perpetuation of such a system, which
has functioned perfectly right up until today, shows that it emerged
at the very outset in a complete and flawless form. In other words,
it was created by one Creator.
The Broom and the Hura Tree
The reproduction of the broom again takes place with
the self-opening method, but in a manner exactly opposite to that
of the Mediterranean squirting cucumber. The bursting of the seeds
of the broom happens not with an increase of liquid, but with its
evaporation. As a pod warms on a summer's day, the side facing the
sun dries faster than that in the shade. The pod splits suddenly
into two halves as a result of the difference in pressure between
the two sides, and in this way the tiny black seeds inside are dispersed
in all directions.
One of the most successful plants which disperses its
seeds by bursting is the Brazilian tree known as the "Hura." When
the tree dries out and the time comes to disperse its seeds, it
can hurl them up to a distance of some 12 metres. This is a considerable
distance for a tree.22
European maples and sycamores have a very interesting
design. These seeds are equipped with only a single wing which sprout
from just one side. The weight of the seed and the length of the
wing are so well balanced that these seeds also spin. Sycamores
often grow in relatively isolated locations, and there the wind
can give the seeds considerable assistance. Spinning around themselves,
helicopter seeds can travel great distances in even a slight breeze.23
The seeds inside the pods of Bertholletia trees, which
grow in South America, stay where they are for a while after falling
to the ground. The reason for this is that they have no properties
to attract animals' attention. They have no smell, for instance,
their exteriors are not striking to look at, and furthermore they
are very difficult to break. For this tree to reproduce, the pods,
containing the nuts, have to be taken out of the shells and buried
But none of these negative properties are a problem for
the Bertholletia, because there is a creature sharing the same environment
with it that can overcome all these shortcomings.
The agouti, a rodent which lives in South America, knows
that there is food for it under this thick, odourless shell. Thanks
to the agouti's chisel-sharp front teeth, it can easily cut through
the tough pod shell to get to the seed. There are about 20 nuts
inside each shell. And this is more than the agouti can eat at one
go. The agouti therefore stuffs the nuts in its cheek pouches and
covers them up after burying them in little holes it digs. Although
it carries out this process in order to find and eat the nuts later,
fortunately, the agouti does not have a perfect memory and the majority
of the seeds are forgotten and left to germinate into a new tree
about a year later.24 This harmony
is not, of course, one which arose by chance. These living things
did not discover one another by chance. These living things were
created. This complementarity, of which there are countless examples
in nature, is the product of a superior wisdom. God, the Possessor
of this superior wisdom, creates both living things with all these
characteristics and their symbiotic connection.
Seeds Which Can Withstand All Conditions
As a rule, reproductive cells in living things die shortly
after leaving their own natural environments. But this does not
apply to plants. Both plant pollen and seeds can remain alive miles
away from the parent plant. And furthermore, it is not important
how much time passes after leaving the parent plant. There are seeds
which remain viable after years, or even hundreds of years.
If the seeds of the lupine sense that
it is not warm enough for them, they can wait under the soil
for years without sprouting.
The lupine, found in the arctic tundra, is a fine example
of plant seeds being able to survive for long periods. The seeds
of the plant feel the need for the warm weather of certain times
of the year in order to germinate. When they feel that the heat
is insufficient, even if all the other conditions are met, the seeds
do not burst, but wait in the frozen soil for the temperature to
rise. When the perfect environment is attained, they start to grow
and finally germinate, taking no account of the length of time that
has passed since they left the parent plant. Seeds have even been
found in the fissures between rocks that have lasted out for hundreds
of years without sprouting or spoiling.
This is a most interesting situation. What does it mean
for a plant to be aware of its external environment? Since the plant
will not be able to manage this by itself, let us consider what
other possibilities there might be. A mechanism inside the plant
might inform it of the situation. The plant may then suddenly arrest
its development, as if an order had been given. But in that case
how did such a system develop? Did the plant devise this system
by thinking about it for itself? How did it produce the technical
necessities within itself?
Of course the plant did not construct this system itself.
All this information is always in the plant seed, hidden in the
genetic code, right from when the plant first emerged. The lupine
in any case possesses a system which can arrest its development
when it comes across cold weather. It is impossible for such a structure
to come about on its own. No matter how long the imaginary formation
time which evolutionists call the "evolutionary period," and whatever
coincidences take place during it, the formation of such a system
which informs plants about the weather situation is completely impossible.
In the same way, seeds of Mimosa Glomerata were kept
in dry storage in a herbarium, and germinated at once when soaked
in water. Another example of a plant with highly resistant seeds
is the Albizia Julibrissin. Its seeds, kept in London's British
Museum herbarium, germinated after no less than 147 years, when
became soaked during efforts to put out a fire in the building during
the Second World War.25
Because air temperatures are low in tundra regions, spoiling
takes place slowly. So much so that some seeds, taken from inside
10,000 year-old glaciers, can return to life when taken to laboratories
and given the necessary amounts of heat and moisture.26
As we all know, the substance of the seed contains a
certain quantity of nutrition with an outer shell reminiscent of
wood. The idea that it could have a thermometer inside it, that
it could have any way of exchanging information with the outside
world, and that it could have the ability to decide on its actions,
on the basis of the information it receives as a result of its own
capacities must be described as illogical, or even "irrational."
We are faced with an extraordinary substance, which looks like a
small piece of wood from the outside, with no link between the enclosed
place it is in and the outside world, yet which can measure air
temperatures and in later stages decide whether the heat is sufficient
for development. A piece of wood which possesses such perfect mechanisms
as to realise that unfavourable conditions will later damage its
development after germinating, which knows what it has to do to
arrest its development the moment it senses such unfavourable conditions,
and to continue its development from where it left off when temperatures
rise to the necessary level.
This extraordinary mechanism in seeds with this resistant
structure cannot be explained by means of chance as the evolutionists
claim. In fact, seeds were designed, or in other words created,
in such a way as to resist difficult conditions.
Without doubt God, the Lord of all the worlds, shows
us evidence of His creation and His own existence even in these
It is He Who sends down water from the sky. Thus
We bring forth plants of every type with it; We produce green vegetation
from it. We produce close-growing grain from it and the palm trees
laden with clusters of dates close at hand produced from pollen,
as well as orchards full of grapes, olives and pomegranates, which
are so similar and yet dissimilar. Look at their fruit as He causes
it to grow and ripen. In that there are signs for people who believe.
(Surat al-An'am: 99)
Seeds Which can Stay in Water for 80 Days
Sea beans, like coconuts, let the sea
carry their seeds.
Alongside seeds which can resist cold weather conditions,
others possess structures which allow them to stay in water for
a long time. There are even seeds which can remain in water for
as long as 80 days without germinating or spoiling. The most famous
of these is the coconut. For the coconut seed to be transported
in safety, it is placed within a very hard shell. Everything needed
for a long journey, a supply of rich food and a half-a-pint or so
of water, is ready inside it. On the outside, it is fitted with
a fibre float that keeps it on the surface of the water.
The sea bean is another plant which sends its seeds by
water. Its seeds are not as large as coconuts, and even after a
year at sea, it can still be viable.27
As soon as coconut palm seeds realize
they have reached land after their long journey on the water,
they begin to germinate. These seeds were created to be especially
resistant to water.
As seen from these two examples, the most important property
of plants which multiply by using water as a vehicle is that the
seeds germinate only when they reach dry land. Actually, this is
a most interesting and exceptional situation, because as we know,
plant seeds usually begin to germinate as soon as they come into
contact with water. But this does not apply to these particular
plants. Because of the particular structure of their seeds, plants
which disperse their seeds by water do not abide by this rule. If
these plants began to germinate as soon as they came into contact
with water, as other plants do, they would long since have died
out. Whereas these plants are able to survive by reason of general
mechanisms suited to the conditions in which they live.
All plants in the world possess the structures best suited
to them. These exceptional features bring to mind the question:
"How is it that such resistance should have come about in just those
species of plants which need it?" Let us take an example-the coconut
is the answer to this question:
1. Palm seeds will need a resistant structure in order
to be able to spend a long time in water, and for this reason their
shells are quite hard. The shells also have water-resistant properties.
This is not a coincidence!
2. They will need more nourishment than normal on their
long journeys, and the exact quantity of food necessary is placed
inside the coconut seed-package.
This too is not the work of coincidence!
3. They open the moment they "know" they have arrived
on dry land.
There is no way this is a coincidence!
As we have seen, these seeds, with their hard shells,
their nutrition stores, their sizes, and in short, all their special
features, have been designed to be resistant for long periods when
necessary. If this finely calculated structure, the shell thickness
of which is exactly measured, and the required store of nutrition
had had to come about as the result of coincidences, the seed would
have germinated before it reached the land, in other words, it would
Of course, no such thing happens, thanks to the sensitive
controls over the germination of these seeds. There is absolutely
no doubt that the amount of food and water in the seeds, when they
are to come to land, and in short all the precautions taken, could
not have come about by means of any intelligence or abilities of
the seeds themselves.
All these fine calculations and measurements were flawlessly
carried out by God, who created the seeds, who knows all their needs
and characteristics, and who possesses infinite knowledge and intelligence.
Everything has its measure with Him. (Surah ar-Ra'd:
As for the earth, We stretched it out and set upon
it immovable mountains and made everything grow in due proportion
on it. (Surat al-Hijr: 19)
The Ant - A Hired Porter
Some seeds have features which are structurally different
from those most widely known. The most surprising facts emerge when
one examines them. As an example, let us take a seed which is covered
in an oily, edible tissue. This oily tissue, which may look quite
ordinary at first sight, is actually a most important detail for
the survival of that plant species. For that is why ants show an
interest in that particular plant. The multiplication of these plants
takes place by means of ants, unlike most plant species. The plant,
which is unable to place its seeds under the ground by itself, has
chosen to do so by having ants carry them. The oily tissue around
the seeds is a most attractive food for ants, which eagerly gather
the seeds up and carry them to their nests, where they bury them
The seeds in this
picture need ants to germinate. The ants' job is first
to carry the seed underground, then eat the external
casing. As we see, God has created a harmony between
the way the ants feed and the way the plants reproduce.
It might be thought that the seeds' being food is the
reason why the ants make such a great effort, but that would be
wrong. Despite all the effort the ants make to carry the seeds to
their nests, they eat only the external casing, and leave the fleshy
inside part. In this way, the ants obtain something to eat, and
that part of the seed which carries out the reproduction of the
plant is left buried in the soil.28 It
would be scientifically completely unrealistic to claim that ants
do all this knowingly, or that the plant arranged its seed to have
certain features that would appeal to a particular species of ant,
or planned to live in the same environment as them.
There can be no argument that the consciousness which
organized this flawless reciprocity belongs neither to the plant,
nor to the ant. It belongs to a Creator, who knows all the properties
of these two living things, and made them for one another. In other
words, it is God, their Creator, who gave them that consciousness.
Everyone in the heavens and earth belongs to Him.
All are submissive to Him. (Surat ar-Rum: 26)
The Seed Becomes a Plant First stage: Germination
Seeds, which resemble little bits of dry wood, are actually
bearers of genetic codes which have thousands of pieces of information
about plants inside them. All the information about the plant the
seed will later produce is hidden inside it. Complete information
about it, from the little hairs on the end of its roots, to the
tubes inside its stem, its flowers, and the fruit it will bear,
exists inside the seed, down to very last tiny detail.
Birds also help those
parts of the seed which will carry out the reproduction
to reach the soil by eating the seed's fleshy parts.
After fertilization, the first stage in a seed's becoming
a flower is germination The seed, waiting under the ground, is only
wakened into action when factors such as warmth, moisture, and light
come together. Before that, it is dormant. When the time comes,
it wakes up and starts to grow.
There are a number of stages in the germination process.
In the first place, the seed must taken in water so that the cells
inside it become hydrated and capable of metabolic activity. Once
metabolic activity begins, the root and the shoot begin to grow,
and at this stage the cells start to divide. In order for particular
functions to be brought about by specialized tissues, the cells
have to differentiate. All these processes require a great deal
For the seed to grow, it needs nourishment. But the seed
needs a preliminary source of food until it can obtain the required
minerals from its roots. So, where does the seed find the nutrients
it needs to grow?
The answer to this question lies in the construction
of the seed. The seed's stored food reserves which forms together
with it during the fertilization process is used by the seed until
it gives off a shoot and appears above the ground. Seeds need the
supplementary nutriments in their bodies until they reach the stage
of being able to produce their own food.
When all of the conditions are just right, germination
begins. The seed takes in water from the soil and the embryo cells
start to divide. Later, the seed coat opens. First tiny roots, the
beginning of the root system, appear and grow downwards in the soil.
Following the development of the tiny roots, the buds which will
produce the stem and leaves develop.
Germination begins under the earth, then the new little
plant heads up towards the light and grows ever stronger. Once the
first leaves have opened, the plant can begin to produce its own
nutrition by means of photosynthesis.
When the time comes, seeds
wake out of their sleep and emerge from the soil, brooking
What has been explained so far is actually common knowledge,
having frequently come under observation. Plants emerging from seeds
under the soil is something which everyone is perfectly familiar
with. But while the seedling is growing, a true miracle takes place.
Seedlings, which weigh only a matter of grams, have no difficulty
in making a hole through what may be some kilograms of earth on
top of them. The seedling's only aim is to emerge from the soil
and reach the light. Plants which have begun to germinate move their
slender trunks as if in empty space and slowly head for the daylight,
as if there were no heavy weight on top of them. They emerge from
the soil in the face of the force of gravity, ignoring in other
words all the physical laws which apply to them.
The tiny seed and its roots just half a millimetre wide
come to no harm from the soil, which normally tends to rot things
and destroy them. Quite the contrary, they rapidly grow and develop.
Experiments were carried out to stop seedlings reaching
the daylight by closing off the escape route on top of them by various
methods. The results were very surprising. The seedlings put out
shoots long enough to get around any obstacle on top of them, or
else created pressure where they lay and again succeeded in reaching
daylight. While plants are growing they can create considerable
pressure where they are. For example, a seedling growing in the
cracks of a newly built road can actually open the cracks up still
further. In short, they brook no obstacles as they head toward the
Shoots always grow vertically as they emerge from the
soil. As they do this, they oppose the force of gravity. The roots,
on the other hand, obey the force of gravity as they head downwards.
This raises the question: "How is it that two organs formed on the
same plant should start growing in different directions?" In order
to answer this, let us have a look at some of the mechanisms in
1. Primary root
2. Lateral root
5. Seed coat
6. First two leaves
7. The last bud enables the branch to grow
When seeds begin to germinate, nothing
prevents them from emerging from the soil and reaching
the sunlight, neither the weight of the soil on top
of them, nor any other obstacle. A seed which begins
to germinate will soon begin to produce its own food
by photosynthesis. As it grows, the seed slowly turns
into a copy of the parent plant. While the shoots
grow towards the surface, the roots spread into the
depths of the soil to gather the raw materials for
Two factors govern the growth of plants: light and gravity.
The first root and shoot which emerge from the seed possess systems
which are very sensitive to these two factors.
There are cells in the root of a germinating plant which
can sense gravitational signals. In the shoot, which heads upwards,
there are other, light-sensitive, cells. This sensitivity of the
cells to light and gravity governs the different parts of the plant's
heading in the correct direction. These two stimuli also enable
the direction of growth of the root and shoot to be corrected if
they are not entirely vertical.29
If we have another look at what we have already established,
it will be seen that we are in the face of an extraordinary situation
here. The cells which make up the plant are beginning to grow different
from one another, and are changing shape to form the different parts
of the plant. Furthermore, as we have seen, the shoot and the root
are growing in opposite directions.
Let us now consider the root's heading down into the
depth of the soil with the force of gravity, together with the shoot's
heading up towards the surface. The movement of these structures,
which present an image of being quite powerless, as they split the
soil, will bring many questions to mind. In particular, there is
an important moment of decision at this point. Who, or what, is
it which establishes the moment, in other words the time the cells
begin to divide, and which shows them what direction to go in? How
is it that every cells acts with the knowledge of which region it
is to take its place in? How is it that no confusion arises, for
example, how is it that the root cells never start to head upwards?
||Plants have a
great variety of coats. The coat of the hazelnut is formed
of a rather hard, difficult-to-break, shell-like substance.
When the time comes, the seed inside the casing breaks
that hard material and emerges, brooking no obstacles.
There is basically only one answer to all questions of
this sort. It is clearly not the plant itself which takes and implements
this decision, or sets up the necessary systems so that no confusion
arises and forms them within its own body. Neither is it possible
for these systems to have come about through the intervention of
any other living thing. And the cells which make up the plant cannot
do it. All these factors show us that plants are all directed and
governed by another force. In other words, there must exist a higher
intelligence which created all the structures they possess, leading
the cells to make their decisions and showing them which way to
go in order to perform their functions. There is no doubt that this
superior wisdom belongs to God, the Lord of all the Worlds.
Shoots Which Brook No Obstacles
A shoot which emerges from the soil may not always find
itself in a suitable environment. It may, for instance, find itself
under the shadow of a rock or a large plant. In such a situation,
if it continues to grow, it will find it difficult to carry out
photosynthesis, because it cannot receive direct sunlight. If the
shoot does find itself in such a situation when it emerges, it changes
its direction of growth towards the source of light. This process,
known as phototropism, shows that shoots have a light-sensitive
orientation system. When we compare them to animals and human beings,
plants are in a more advantageous position as regards light perception,
because human beings, for example, can perceive light only with
their eyes. Whereas plants have at least three quite distinct photo-receptor
mechanisms. For this reason they never confuse direction. Thanks
to their flawless orientation systems, based on light and the force
of gravity, they easily find their way.
Alongside light-sensitive systems, within plants, there
are also localized areas of cell division. These areas, known as
meristems, are generally found at the tips of the growing roots
and stems. If the cells in the growth areas always grow in the same
way during germination, this leads the stem to grow straight. Every
plant takes shape according to the growth direction of the plant
cells in the meristems of roots and shoots. If the growth of these
cells is more on one side and less on the other, then the stem of
the plant will grow at an angle. If conditions are appropriate,
plant growth starts at the same moment in all areas. The sprouting
plant directs its stem straight to the light which it badly needs.
On the other hand, the roots, which will provide the necessary water
and minerals for the plant from the soil, grow in the most appropriate
way thanks to their gravity-sensitive direction systems. At first
sight it might be thought that roots spread under ground at random.
Whereas actually, thanks to this sensitive system, the root extensions
progress like rockets, locked on to their targets in a controlled
The growth controlled by these mechanisms is different
from plant to plant, because the growth of every plant takes place
in conformity with its own genetic information. For this reason,
maximum growth rates are different for every plant. For example,
the lupine attains its maximum growth rate at about ten days of
age, the cornstalk in its sixth week, the beech tree after a quarter-century.30
Germination is the first stage in a tiny body's becoming
a plant several metres long and weighing tons. While the roots of
slow-growing plants head down, and the branches up, the systems
inside them (food transport systems, reproductive systems, hormones
which control the upward and sideways growth of the plant and then
make it stop) all emerge together, and there is no delay or imperfection
in the emergence of any of them. This is most important. For instance,
while a plant's reproductive mechanisms are developing on the one
hand, the transport tubes (for water and food) develop on the other.
Otherwise, bark or wood tubes would have no importance for a plant
whose reproductive mechanism had not developed. There would be no
point in roots emerging. Since such a plant could not produce subsequent
generations, the subsidiary mechanisms would serve no purpose.
As we have seen, there is a plan in this harmonious design
for plant interdependence which definitely could not have come about
by chance. Development by stages, as claimed by evolutionist scientists,
is completely out of the question.
Let us demonstrate this with a simple experiment that
anyone can do. Let us take one seed and together with this something
containing a mixture of all the molecules in the seed, of the same
size and weight, bury them both at the same depth, and wait for
a while. Once a period of time has passed which will differ according
to the species, we shall see that the seed we planted has split
the soil and has come to the surface. But no matter how long we
wait, the other substance will never come to the surface. The result
will be the same no matter if we wait a hundred or a thousand years.
The reason for the difference is obviously the special design in
the seed. Plant genes are encoded with the necessary information
for this process. All the systems in plants reveal the existence
of conscious choice. All the details show that plants cannot have
come about by random events, on the contrary, they show that there
was a conscious intervention in the emergence of plants.
Of course this perfect design is proof of the existence
of a Creator who knows and brings about everything, down to the
finest detail. Just the first stage of the life of plants, the emergence
of the seed, clearly reveals to us the unique nature of the creation
of God, the Possessor of superior power. God draws our attention
to this truth in the Qur'an:
Have you thought about what you cultivate? Is it
you who make it germinate or are We the Germinator? If We wished
We could have made it broken stubble. You would then be left devoid
of crops, distraught. (Surat al-Waqi'a: 63-65)
20. Temel Britannica,
Vol 4, p.299
21. David Attenborough, The Private Life of Plants,
Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, p.15
22. David Attenborough, The Private Life of Plants,
Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, p.16
23. David Attenborough, The Private Life of Plants,
Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, p.19
24. David Attenborough, The Private Life of Plants,
Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, p.35
25. Malcolm Wilkins, Plantwatching,
New York, Facts on File Publications, 1988, p.46-47
26. John King, Reaching for The Sun, 1997, Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, p.117
27. David Attenborough, The Private Life of Plants,
Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, p.22
28. David Attenborough, The Private Life of Plants,
Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, p.24
29. Malcolm Wilkins, Plantwatching, New York, Facts
on File Publications, 1988, p.65-66
30. Guy Murchie, The Seven Mysteries of Life, USA,
Houhton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1978 p.57