Spider's Methods of Hunting
Most people think of the spider as an animal
that just uses a web to catch its prey. But this by no means tells
the whole story, because these webs, each one a wonder of architecture
and engineering, are not the only means by which spiders catch their
prey. Besides spinning webs, spiders employ some surprising tactics
The Lassoo-throwing Spider
We did not create the heavens
and the earth and everything between them as a game. We did
not create them except with truth, but most of them do not
know it. (Surat ad-Dukhan: 38-39)
Of all the many species of spider, one of the
most interesting, because of its hunting techniques, is the "Bolas"
spider. Dr. Gertsch, an expert on spiders, has established as a
result of his detailed research on this creature, that it uses a
noose to catch its prey.
Bolas spiders hunt their prey in two stages.
In the first stage the spider spins a thread with a sticky end and
lies in ambush. Later it will use this sticky thread as a lassoo.
Then, in order to attract its prey to it, the spider gives off a
very special chemical. This is a "pheromone," which female
moths use to attract males for mating. The male moth, deceived by
the counterfeit call, approaches the source of the smell. The spiders
have very poor eyesight, but can make out the vibrations set up
by the moth as it flies. In this way the spider can feel its prey
approaching it. Now the interesting thing is that, despite the fact
that the Bolas spider is almost blind, it can catch a flying, living
creature with a thread it makes itself hanging in the air.
The book, Strange Things Animals Do, likens the
spiders' hunting technique to a cowboy throwing a lassoo:
The spider spins a silky cord,
then puts a weight on one end — a heavy bit of gum. In this way,
the weapon reminds one of a cowboy's lassoo. Then it takes the
cord up in its two front legs, which now act like arms. When a
moth flies by, it throws the lassoo. The sticky, weighted end
hits the body of the flying insect and sticks to it. The moth
is then roped in and the Bolas spider wraps it up.4
Because Bolas spiders throw their lassoos faster
than the human eye can see, it required a special technique
to take this picture.
The second stage begins when the victim, deceived
by the smell, approaches. Drawing its legs back the spider gets
into the attack position and throws the lassoo faster than the human
eye can see. The moth is caught by the sticky ball at the end of
the thread. The spider reels its prey in and bites it, paralysing
it. Next it wraps the moth up in a special thread, which keeps the
food fresh for a long time. In this way the spider preserves its
food for later consumption.
In the same book the writer evaluates the spiders'
planned movements in these terms:
Scientists call the bolas
a lesser creature. Dr. Gertsch is not sure that this is an accurate
term for her. Because what a trained sea lion, a dog, or a tiger
cannot do, what even a great ape cannot do, what even a cowboy
finds difficult - this so-called lesser creature does.5
It is therefore clear that the Bolas spider's
hunting technique requires a special skill, and is even based on
gaining experience through practice. If we examine the process stage
by stage the difficult nature of what the spider does becomes more
apparent. Let us look at the answer to the question, "What
does the Bolas spider have to do when hunting?"
- It prepares a sticky ball on the end of a thread.
- It produces in its body and releases a smell
given off by females of another insect species to attract males.
- It throws the lassoo at its prey faster than
the human eye can see.
- It aims the lassoo at its prey and hits it.
- Finally, it has to produce a special thread
which will keep the prey fresh, and then wraps it up.
The Bolas spider catches its prey with the sticky
balls seen in this picture.
So, how is the Bolas spider able to operate within
the framework of such a clever plan? Making plans is a feature of
creatures which possess the power of reasoning, i.e. human beings.
Furthermore, the spider's brain does not have the capacity to conceive
all this and carry it out. But, in that case, how did it come to
possess a hunting technique with such striking characteristics?
That is a question scientists are still trying to find the answer
According to evolutionists, spiders owe all their
characteristics to coincidences. The spider decided to make a lassoo,
carried out the chemical production, knew that it had to attract
the moth towards it and came to have the skill to hit the target
with the lassoo, all by coincidence. All the other qualities it
would need to hunt with a lassoo came about entirely by coincidence.
It is obvious that claims based on coincidence are just fantasy,
with no scientific or logical foundation. In order to see clearer
just how far the evolutionists' fantasies are from scientific fact
let us imagine a little scenario, despite all the impossibilities.
Scenario: A long time ago a spider, realising
that it was unable to build webs like other spiders, began to look
carefully around it. One day it noticed that female moths were using
a chemical to attract males. It thought that in order to catch the
moths it would have to produce the same chemical, built a chemistry
laboratory inside its own body and began to manufacture the chemical.
But its problems were not yet over. Because unless it could catch
the moths there was no point in attracting them. At that point it
had another idea, and from the thread it produced it made a weapon,
a cross between a lassoo and a mace.
But just making the weapon was not enough. The
first time it went hunting, unless it could hit the target all its
efforts would go to waste, even worse it would die of hunger. But
it did not happen that way, and it caught its prey, and after that
it "succeeded" in developing a perfect hunting technique.
After that it thought of teaching the technique, in every tiny detail,
to the other spiders and found a way of transmitting this knowledge
to following generations.
These are just parts of a scenario. But is not
just enough for the scenario to be written down. The scenario has
to be translated into reality. To this end let us consider some
imaginary alternatives within the scope of the imaginary scenario.
Imaginary Alternative 1: This consists
of what evolutionists call "Mother Nature," that is trees,
flowers, the sky, water, rain, the sun, etc. Then there are all
the forces of nature, acting in harmony to establish a perfectly
functioning system. In the process the Bolas spider is not forgotten
and it is ensured that it comes to possess a good hunting technique.
Imaginary Alternative 2: Pure coincidence,
again described by evolutionists as an active force, comes to the
assistance of the Bolas spider, as to all other hunters, and enables
it to come into possession of predatory skills.
Naturally, these are nothing but fantasies, the
products of an active imagination. The possessors of this active
imagination are the evolutionary scientists. Before moving on to
the actual answer, let us examine how illogical and invalid and
baseless these scenarios are.
- Evidently the Bolas spider is not a chemical
engineer! It is not possible for it to study the chemicals released
by the moths and carry out an analysis of them, then starting to
knowingly create the same chemical within its own body. To claim
this is diametrically opposed to intelligence, logic, and science.
- The spider has no other use for the chemical
given off by the moths than for hunting. Even if it had reproduced
it by coincidence, it would have to understand the similarity between
the scent given off by the moths and its own scent. Then, analysing
this resemblance it would have to have the intelligence to make
use of it in its own interest.
- Even if we accept that the spider had in some
way "learned" about the nature of the scent given off
by the moths and had been "clever enough" to use this
in its own favour, then it has to be able to make the necessary
physical changes to produce that material. It is not possible for
any living creature, of its own volition, to add an extra organ
or chemical production system to its own body. Even thinking that
a spider might be capable of doing such a thing, let alone actually
claiming it as fact, means leaving the realms of logic far behind.
No matter how impossible, let us imagine that
the spider did actually come to have all these characteristics we
have discussed by coincidence. Now it is necessary for the spider
to have "thought of" using a lassoo to catch the moths
and after "designing" it to be able, of its own volition,
to create it.
It is clear from this that when one carefully
examines the characteristics of the Bolas spider, one gets a better
understanding of just how comic the claim of the theory of evolution,
completely based on coincidences, is. That coincidences will be
unable to bring the spider into possession of the features we have
discussed above, that is, intelligence, planning and tactics, and,
furthermore, that even with time the spider will be unable to bring
these about itself, is clear. There is no need to think long and
hard or to do research in order to grasp this. Using a bit of common
sense will be enough to see this obvious truth.
It follows that the evolutionists' scenarios
are blatantly false. All that is left is the truth: The situation
we are discussing needs a very special act of creation. It is God
Who created all living creatures, plants, animals, and insects.
God has infinite power, knowledge, intelligence, and wisdom:
'Lord of the heavens and the earth and everything
between them, the Almighty, the Endlessly Forgiving,' (Surah Sad:
The Trap-door for Living in the Desert
Desert climates can be lethally hot for many
living creatures. Nevertheless, some creatures have skills which
enable them to survive in the desert despite the heat. Either their
hunting techniques, the construction of their bodies, or their modes
of behaviour enable them to live comfortably in a desert environment.
One species of the subject of this book, the spider, possesses the
characteristics necessary for living in the desert. This living
thing, known as the "trapdoor spider" uses its insulated
home in the desert floor both to protect it from the heat and as
a trap to catch its prey.
While hunting its prey, the trapdoor spider keeps
only its front legs outside.
First of all the spider digs a burrow in the
ground. It sticks tiny bits of earth together with a special fluid
it produces and plasters the inside of the tunnel. This process
strengthens the walls against the danger of collapse. Later it covers
the walls in a thread it makes. This plastering technique is similar
to the thermal insulation technique we use today. In this way the
inside of the nest is made resistant to the high desert temperatures
We mentioned how the second feature of the nest
was its use as a trap. The spider makes a cover for the nest out
of its own silk. One side of this is attached by a hinge made of
strong thread to the nest, turning it into nothing less than a door.
This door also helps the spider conceal itself from its prey. It
camouflages the cover with bits of brush, scrub, and soil. Then
it stretches taut threads under the leaves, from the outside of
the nest in. When an insect approaches the nest and steps on the
leaves or the earth, the underground threads start to vibrate. Thanks
to these vibrations the spider can tell that prey is near. When
everything is in position, the spider enters its nest and waits
for its prey.
These pictures show the entrance to the trapdoor
The trap-door spider can live up to 10 years
in its burrow. It spends all its life in the dark tunnel and almost
never emerges. Even when it opens the cover to seize its prey its
back legs do not leave the nest. If the cover is opened with a twig
the spider will come to the entrance and make great efforts to close
it up again. Females never leave the nest, while males only do so
to find a mate. When it is time for the female to produce its offspring,
it firmly closes the entrance, sticking the cover to the doorway
with its own thread. In this way it has been observed that the mother
spider can spend a year in the nest without leaving it.
Trap-door spiders hunt at night and keep the
covers of their nests firmly shut by day. As night starts to fall
the spider pushes the cover partly open to see whether it is fully
dark yet. If it is dark it pushes the cover partly open and rests
its front legs outside. It can remain in this position for many
hours. When ants in particular approach the spider immediately jumps
on them at lightning speed and drags them down into its burrow.
The cover closes again under its own weight.
There is no doubt that in order to learn to live
in the manner described above some abilities requiring intelligence,
for example construction ability, will be needed. It will not be
possible for the spider to fabricate insulation from the heat or
to camouflage itself in the sand through coincidence or trial and
error. Even before it starts to build the tunnel, it "knows"
that it will use its silk to protect it from the heat, that it will
use the same thread to make a cover for the nest, that it will use
its nest to hide from enemies and also as an incomparable trap,
and that it will give birth to its young in safety in this silk-padded
nest. Were it not so, the first trap-door spider to emerge would
have died of heat or hunger in the middle of the desert. That would
mean the end of the species.
Furthermore, every new-born spider behaves in
this same way. It builds its nest in the same way and feeds in the
same way. Therefore it was not enough for the first spider to have
these surprising features, it also had to be able to pass all its
knowledge on to later generations. This can only happen by this
knowledge being fixed in the spider's genes. But notwithstanding
all these facts, we are still faced with questions. How did the
trap-door spider come to have these characteristics, and who fixed
them in its genes?
These intelligent behaviour patterns, planning
capability, tactical selection and implementation, and flawless
bodily construction, which proponents of the theory of evolution
try to explain by such concepts as instinct, imaginary mechanisms,
coincidence, or Mother Nature, can actually have only one explanation.
It is God Who gave all living creatures the skills they have, or
Who created them with these skills already in place. God possesses
The Master of Deception Spider
The colours of the flowers and the spider in this picture
are identical. So much so that some insects mistake the spider
for a flower and land on it. The power which made these two
living things so adapted to each other, of identical colour,
Contrary to common belief, many
types of spider hunt without building webs. One such spider, which
catches its prey without a web, is the crab spider. It disguises
itself inside flowers and feeds on bees which land on them.6
The crab spider uses its ability to change colour
to match the yellow or white of the flower. It completely conceals
its legs in the middle of the flower and settles down to wait for
its prey. The spider matches the colour of the flower it hides in
to perfection. It is only by the most careful inspection that the
spider can be distinguished from the flower.
The spider goes into action when a bee lands
to suck the nectar from the flower in which it is lying in ambush.
At that very moment the spider slowly wraps its legs around the
bee, then, in a sudden movement it bites it in the head, injecting
its venom straight into its brain and then eating its prey. The
spider can disguise itself so cunningly in the flower that sometimes
a butterfly or a bee will land right on top of it without realising
Did the spider decide to be able to take on these
colours by itself, by any chance? Did it study flowers and copy
the same tones and shades in itself? It is clear that the spider
would not have had the ability to do that. Apart from a few nerve
centres, it does not even possess a brain capable of thinking. Furthermore,
the spider is colour-blind. It can perceive neither yellow nor pink.
Even if we accept for a moment that it could manage to match itself
to the exact colours and tones it saw, it would still not be possible
for it to reproduce this within its own body. It is God, the Owner
of superior power, Who enables the spider to distinguish and reproduce
colours is God.
As well as being the same shade of colour as the
flowers they wait on, some spiders even have the same patterns
The spider (right) exactly matches the sand it walks on. One
has to look very carefully to distinguish the spider from
The Caerostis spider hunts at night (middle). At dawn it dismantles
its web and waits for night again. The twig, which it resembles,
and which it sits on all day, camouflages it.
It is obvious that the flowers and the spider
have been created to match each others' colours by God. It is as
if two pictures had been done on the same canvas with the same paints
and brush in the same colours and tones, in a match that cannot
be explained by any fairy tale-like coincidence.
Hunting with a Ladder Orb Web
Spiders' webs are death traps for many living
things. But there are some creatures which can survive this deadly
trap. For example, a normal moth is impervious to spiders' webs.
Because the dust on the moth's body renders the sticky bits of the
web ineffective. Thanks to this property the moth is easily able
But moths can still be caught in webs of a construction
which is different from normal ones. The web of the Scoloderus spider,
which lives in tropical areas, is different from most webs, and
closely resembles fly-paper. In this way Scoloderus can easily catch
moths. The Scoloderus spider builds a web a meter long and 15-20
centimetres wide, resembling a ladder. Moths caught in them fall
down to the bottom of the web. During the long fall they lose most
of the protective covering which prevents them sticking in normal
webs, and so are caught in Scoloderus' trap.
So this spider has a hunting technique very different
from that of other species. The point of note in this method of
hunting is that the spider produces a web with features enabling
it to catch the insect it hunts. This species of spider, with its
different web construction, is one of many pieces of evidence testifying
to God's infinite art of creation.
The Net-Casting Spider: Dinopis
This ogre-faced spider, or Dinopis,
to give it its scientific name, employs a very unusual and surprising
hunting technique. Instead of building a fixed web and waiting for
its prey, it builds a web with a few special features, and casts
this over its prey. Then it wraps its prey up in this web. The trapped
insect is doomed. Then, the spider wraps its prey in new threads,
in a "packet," to keep its food fresh for later.7
It is evident that the spider catches its prey
within the framework of a plan. The planning and subsequent production
of a web of the correct size, shape and strength, etc, which is
exactly suited to this hunting method, and then the wrapping up
of the prey, are all activities requiring superior capacities based
on intelligence. Furthermore, an examination of the spider's web's
construction features reveals them to be faultless.
The web of the Dinopis, unlike that of other spiders,
possesses the unique feature of being thrown over its victim.
Dinopis' web is a wonder of planning in every
sense. Just the chemical make-up of the silk it uses is a miracle
on its own. The technique the spider employs to use its web is also
particularly interesting. While the spider waits for its prey, the
web resembles a narrow cage built out of straws. But this harmless
appearance is in reality a deception. When the spider goes into
action to catch its prey, it uses its legs to turn the web inside
out, making it a death trap from which there can be no escape.
But how is the spider able to build a web of
such perfect mechanical planning and chemical construction? It is
no simple matter to do tasks which require planning, no matter how
straight forward. Each one needs a different plan and experience.
We can demonstrate this as follows. When describing spiders' webs
we often use the expression "like lace." For this reason
it will not be incorrect to say that with their webs spiders actually
are making lace.
Let us imagine that the man in the street is
given the implements used to make lace (tatting shuttle, needles,
thread, etc.) and the cotton. Can we expect this person, who has
no previous experience, to make something in lace at the first attempt?
Or can we imagine a lace table-cloth emerging from knots made by
coincidence? Of course not.
These pictures show the stages of the
Dinopis' hunting technique. The spider hangs on a thread it
has tied to a branch or leaf. Then it waits in ambush. There
is no escape for the prey which passes under it. The spider
suddenly jumps and throws its web over its prey.
It is impossible for a plan to emerge by itself,
because for a plan to emerge, intelligence, skill, and a means of
imparting information are necessary. For a living creature to make
plans, and if, furthermore, it carries out these plans with no faults
in their execution, this creature must be "intelligent."
However, it is not possible to accept that an insect can be intelligent,
that it can think, think of plans. This is a banal chain of logic
used to try to arrive at the truth, and does not reflect reality.
For which reason there must be a power which gave the insect its
intelligence, or rather which directs it, which taught it what it
does, or rather makes it do it. In other words the insect must have
As we have seen, it is an obvious truth that
these living creatures were created by God. But evolutionists ignore
this, and instead build upon possibilities. Their wilful slavery
to their theories makes them incapable of understanding, seeing,
or hearing. It has led them to a state where they cannot see an
obvious truth and cannot accept what they see and understand.
According to evolutionists, Dinopis spun its
web with the features we have described above, by chance, and also
learned to use it by chance. Any intelligent person can see that
such a thing is impossible. But let us for a moment accept, despite
its clear impossibility, that such a thing is possible and that
the first Dinopis managed to spin such a web by chance. (We shall
ignore such questions as how Dinopis first came to be, and how it
produced the chemicals necessary for its web inside its body, taking
them as given). In this case the following questions need to be
answered: If the first web was spun by chance, how did the second
and third webs come to be spun? How did the spider manage to reproduce
exactly the same web, which it had spun by chance? How did a newly-born
spider know how to spin a web like lace, to spin a web with qualities
different from those of others, and that it would have to throw
the web over its prey?
There is only one answer to these questions.
The spider, incapable of learning, or learning by heart, and lacking
even a brain sufficiently developed to do these things, was endowed
with these things by God, the omnipotent Creator of all living things.
The Portia Spider: A Master of Deception
Portia spiders imitate and hunt their own species.
For example, Portia (the bottom spider), in the picture, deceives
the female Euryattus (the top spider) by mimicing the mating
ritual of the Euryattus spider which lives in a rolled-up
leaf suspended by silk cables. Of course it is impossible
for a spider to come by and employ this "imitative skill"
all by itself. The spider was created by God to have this
In contrast to most other spiders, Portia Fimbriata
both builds a web and hunts away from its own web. Another feature
of Portia is that it prefers members of its own species over insects
as food. For this reason Portia's field of activity is generally
other spiders' webs. It uses a fascinating stratagem when hunting.
Generally, Portia will land
on a web while the wind is blowing or while an insect is struggling
to free itself. Such strong vibrations mask the shaking caused by
a Portia on the prowl. To look at, it resembles a scrap of vegetation
blown into a web by the wind. Unlike other spiders, which jump excitedly
on to their prey when they see it, Portia moves slowly. Once it
is installed on the web, it manipulates, plucks and slaps the web
silk with its legs, mimicking a trapped insect. When the owner of
the web approaches, Portia is ready and waiting in ambush.8
Portia spiders deceive members
of their own species by imitating them. For example, Portia mimics
the mating ritual of the Euryattus spider, which lives in a rolled-up
leaf suspended by silk cables. Sitting atop a female spider's home,
Portia rocks the leaf, dancing atop it like a Euryattus male. Fooled
for the moment, the spider emerges from its home.9
How does Portia match signals with different
types of spiders and why did it select such a different method of
hunting? It is not logical to suggest that a spider could have an
"imitative skill" and because of this should choose such
an interesting hunting technique. The spider hunts in this way because
that is how it was created by God. In such examples, God shows us
the incomparable nature of His art of creation.
Spiders' Fishing Techniques
Spiders, which wait in ambush on their fragile webs and
hide amidst bushes, were created as real killing machines.
They can even walk on water to hunt (bottom). When necessary
they can construct a bell and even live under water.
Some spiders hunt in even the most unexpected
environments. For example, the hunting field of the water-spider
Dolomedes is the surface of water. This spider is mostly to be found
in shallow places such as marshes and ditches.
The water-spider, which lacks good eyesight,
spends most of its time by the side of the water spinning threads
and spreading them over its surroundings. These serve two functions
at the same time: they are a kind of warning to other spiders, setting
the limits of its own territory, and they also form an escape route
in the event of unexpected danger.
The spider's most frequently used hunting method
is to put four of its legs on the water while the other four hold
on to dry land. While doing this, it employs a most clever technique
to avoid sinking. The spider covers those of its legs which will
go into the water with a water-proof coating by passing them through
its fangs. It then approaches the edge of the water. Pushing its
body down with great care, it moves on to the surface of the water.
It places its fangs and feelers under the water in such a way as
not to disturb the surface. It waits for a living creature to approach,
with its eyes looking around it and its legs feeling for vibrations
in the water. To feed itself, the spider needs to find prey at least
the size of the "Golyan" fish, which we see in the picture.
This species of spider can move comfortably on water,
thanks to the waterproof liquid on its legs. The picture shows
a water spider which has caught a fish.
When the spider is hunting,
it stays motionless until the fish comes within 1.5 centimetres
of its jaws. Then it suddenly enters the water, catches the fish
in its legs, and bites it with its venomous fangs. Then, in order
to stop the fish, which is much bigger than it, from dragging it
under the water, it immediately turns upside down. The venom quickly
takes effect. It not only kills the prey, but also dissolves the
prey's internal organs, turning them into a kind of soup and making
them easy to digest. When the prey is dead, the spider drags it
on to the shore and feeds.10
At this point various questions spring to mind.
How did the spider come by that wax which stops it sinking? How
did it learn to coat its legs with it against the risk of sinking?
How did the spider come by the wax's formula and how did it make
it? The spider certainly did not bring about all of these things—each
one of which bears the mark of intelligence—of its own volition.
Like all other living creatures, this species of spider acts in
such an intelligent way, is capable of making such a plan and putting
it into practice by inspiration from God. In one of His verses,
God states that He gives every creature its own provision:
There is no creature on the earth which is
not dependent upon God for its provision. He knows where it lives
and where it dies. They are all in a Clear Book. (Surah Hud: 6)
The Bell Spider's Diving Technique
The water spiders of the warm regions of Asia
and Africa spend a lot of their time under water, and so make their
nests in the water.
The water spider's bubble in the picture is planned
in the most ideal way for living under water. It is impossible
for a spider to have found a way of living under water by
chance. It is God Who created the spider with these characteristics.
In order to build its nest, the spider first
of all constructs a platform between plant stems or leaves in the
water. It attaches the platform to the stems with silk threads.
These threads indicate to the spider the way back to its home, stabilise
the platform, and also work like radar, giving warning of the approach
After constructing the platform, the spider carries
air bubbles under it with its legs and trunk. In this way the web
swells upwards, and as more air is added, it takes on the appearance
of a bell. This "bell" is the nest where the spider lives.
By day the spider waits in its nest. Should any
small animal pass by, especially an insect or a larva, it rushes
out, grabs it, and drags it back to the nest to consume. An insect
falling on to the surface of the water sets off vibrations. The
spider senses these, goes up to the surface, seizes the insect and
drags it beneath the water. The spider even uses a web on the surface
of the water. It makes no distinction between an insect which falls
into this and any other victim.
As winter approaches, the spider
has to take precautions if it is not to freeze. For this reason,
as winter draws near, the water-spider goes down deeper. This time
it builds a winter bell and fills the inside of it with air. Some
other spiders move into empty sea-snail shells. It never moves inside
the bell, and expends hardly any energy throughout the whole winter.
This is to conserve energy and so reduce its need for oxygen. These
precautions mean that the air bubbles it carries to the bell can
last it for the 4-5 winter months.11
As we have seen, the spider's air bubble and
hunting methods are the ideal way for a spider to be able to live
under water. It is impossible for a living creature to find a way
of living under water by chance. If a creature does not have the
features necessary for living under water, then it will drown the
first time it enters the water. It will not have time to wait for
coincidence, or anything else. Therefore, a land creature, which
can live under water by virtue of having the right skills to do
so, owes its existence to the emergence of such skills. And this
shows us that the water-spider, with these distinctive characteristics
and abilities, was created by God in a perfect manner.
I have put my trust in God, my Lord and your
Lord. There is no creature He does not hold by the forelock. My
Lord is on a Straight Path. (Surah Hud: 56)
Spiders like Wheels
Some species of spiders in the Namibian desert
in South-west Africa, when faced by danger, fully retract their
legs and make their bodies exactly like a wheel. Then, with a series
of somersaults with their wheel-shaped bodies, they rapidly move
away from the danger.
This spider, which purposefully builds its nest
on the top of sand hills, springs out as soon as a wild bee
begins to dig at its nest. (left) In order to build up speed,
the spider first takes a few steps, then, folding in its five-jointed
legs, it moves quickly, like a wheel rolling downhill.
These spiders measure some 2.5-3 centimetres
and can move quite quickly, at 2 metres a second. In order to grasp
what this speed means, let us give an example. The rotation of the
spider's body in its wheel form is that of the wheels of a vehicle
moving at 40 kilometres an hour.
Some species of spider use this technique to
flee from their enemies. Most of the time these enemies are wild
female raider wasps. When the spider, which builds it nest on the
tops of sand hills, senses the wasps beginning to dig at its nest,
it rushes outside. First it takes a few steps to build up speed,
then it folds in its five-jointed legs, and gathering speed like
a wheel rolling downhill, flees. If the spider built its nest at
the bottom of sand hills, then it would be unable to get up the
necessary speed and would be caught. For that reason it chooses
to build its nest at the tops of the hills. That it should take
such a precaution as to build its nest on a hill, without having
come across an enemy, is a conscious piece of behaviour. Without
doubt it was God Who inspired it to do this. God creates without
any preceding example, and He is aware of all creation.
The Spitting Spider
The species of spider known
as Scytodes kills its victims by squirting a mixture of toxin and
gluey substance over them. These liquids are produced in an enormous
gland behind the spider's eyes, which is divided into two compartments:one
contains a toxin, the other a gluey substance. The spider contracts
the muscles surrounding the latter and a stream of glue is rapidly
ejected from the animal's fangs. Sprayed out in a zig zag pattern,
the adhesive forms a net that fixes the prey to the leaf or twig
it happens to be traversing.12 Then
having immobilised its prey and stuck it on to a branch or leaf,
it can eat it later where it hangs.
Pasilobus, only to be found in New Guinea, is
a great expert at preparing traps. The webs it spins are very sticky.
The whole web is slung between two fixed points. The knot at one
end is very tight, but the one at the other end is left quite loose.
This is not a mistake, and is not a result of the spider's not concentrating.
That this is a hunting strategy can be seen when the prey approaches.
When a moth flies into the web, the loose loop end becomes detached.
Because the other end stays fastened, the insect remains hanging
like a bundle in the air. Later the spider approaches it and sprays
a sticky material all over it, starting from the head. In this way
the spider catches its prey alive.
4. Gardner Soul, Strange Things
Animals Do, G.P.Putnam's Son, New York, 1970, p. 89
5. Gardner Soul, Strange Things Animals Do, G.P.Putnam's
Son, New York, 1970, p. 90
6. Liz Bomford, Camuflage and Colour, Boxtree Ltd.,
London, 1992, p. 108
7. The Guinness Encyclopedia of the Living World,
Guinnes Publishing, s. 164
8. National Geographic, November 1996, Vol. 190, No.5,
9. National Geographic, November 1996, Vol. 190, No.5,
10.Bilim ve Teknik Görsel Bilim ve Teknik Ansiklopedisi
(Science and Technology Gorsel Science and Technology Encyclopedia),
p. 494, 495)
11. Bates Hayvanlar Ansiklopedisi (Bates Encyclopedia
of Animals), p. 244
12.Natural History, Tools of the Trade, 3/95, p.