A Planet Created for Mankind
Do you not see that Allah has subjected to
you everything in the heavens and earth and has showered His blessings
upon you, both outwardly and inwardly? Yet there are people who
argue about Allah without knowledge or guidance or any illuminating
Book. (Surah Luqman: 20)
Materialist philosophy offers a single explanation
of the order and balance in the universe: it is coincidence. According
to this claim, the whole universe is shaped through coincidences.
However, when we investigate the universe only
briefly, we see that this claim is completely unreal. Coincidence
only leads to chaos whereas order, rather than chaos, prevails in
the universe. This order proves to us the being and eternal power
of Allah, Who created the universe out of nothing and then gave
it a shape.
we explore the universe, we encounter numerous examples of order.
The world we live in is only one of those. With all its features,
the world is created with extremely delicate balances making it
suitable for the survival of living beings.
The distance of the earth from the sun, the inclination
of its axis to its orbit, the balances in the atmosphere, the rotational
speed of the earth around its axis and around the sun, the functions
of oceans and mountains on the earth, the features of living beings
and the interactions of all those, are just a few elements of this
When earth is compared with other planets, it
becomes even more evident that it is especially designed for man.
Water, for instance, is a compound that is very rarely found in
space. The liquid form of water exists only in our planet out of
all the planets in the solar system. Moreover, 70% of the world
is covered with water. Millions of varieties of living beings live
in this medium. The freezing of water, its capacity to attract and
store heat, the existence of very large masses of water in the form
of oceans, and the even distribution of heat across the world are
all exclusive characteristics of the earth. No other planet has
such a liquid mass in constant circulation.
The axis of the earth makes a 23-degree inclination
to its orbit. Seasons are formed due to this inclination. If this
inclination were a little more or less than it is now, temperature
differences between seasons would reach extremes and unbearably
hot summers and extremely cold winters would take place on the earth.
The earth’s rotation around its axis is at the
most appropriate speed for living beings. When we look at other
planets in the solar system, we see that they also experience night
and day. However, because the time differences are far bigger than
those in the world, the temperature differences between day and
night are very high. The fierce wind activity in the atmospheres
of other planets is not experienced in the world’s atmosphere thanks
to this balanced rotation.
The gases making up the atmosphere and their
concentration in the atmosphere are extremely important for the
existence not only of human beings but also of all living beings
on the earth. The formation of the gasses in the atmosphere in just
the right proportions that remain constant is made possible by the
co-existence of numerous delicate balances.
Hundreds of points can be listed in addition
to the above mentioned features. Even the examples quoted so far,
however, reveal to us a certain reality:
The world in which we live is very specially
constructed for the survival of living beings. It is the product
not of coincidence but of a conscious order.
This perfect order prevailing throughout the
universe leads us to a single conclusion: a Creator with infinite
power and wisdom, that is, Allah, Who is the Possessor of all worlds,
created the universe.
There are four basic gasses in the atmosphere. These
are nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%), argon (less than 1%), and carbon
dioxide (0.03%). Gasses in the atmosphere fall into two groups: "those
that are reactive" and "those that are non-reactive". Analysis on
reactive gasses reveals that the reactions they enter into are essential
for life whereas non-reactive gasses produce compounds that are destructive
for life when they enter into reaction. For instance, argon and nitrogen
are inactive gasses. They can be involved in very few chemical reactions.
However, if these could react easily, like oxygen, the oceans would
turn into nitric acid, for example.
The great balance in the atmosphere
On the other hand, oxygen reacts with other atoms,
organic compounds, and even rocks. These reactions yield the most
basic molecules of life such as water and carbon dioxide.
In addition to the reactivity of gasses, their
present concentrations are also highly critical for life.
Let us look at oxygen, for instance. Oxygen is
the most abundant reactive gas in our atmosphere. The high oxygen
concentration of our atmosphere is one of the features that distinguish
earth from other planets in the solar system in which even minute
amounts of oxygen are not present.
If there were more oxygen in the atmosphere,
oxidation would take place quicker and rocks and metals would be
eroded sooner. Hence, the earth would be eroded and disintegrate,
and animate life would face a great threat. If we had a little less
oxygen, respiration would become harder, and less of the ozone gas
would be produced. Changes in the amount of ozone would be fatal
for life. Less ozone would cause the solar ultra-violet rays to
reach the world in greater intensity causing living things to vanish.
More ozone would prevent the sun’s heat reaching the earth and thus
Carbon dioxide has similar delicate balances.
Plants absorb the sun’s radiation via this gas, mix it with water,
form bicarbonate that dissolves rocks, and leave it in oceans. They
also break this gas down and release oxygen back into the atmosphere.
Thus, oxygen, an essential for living beings, is constantly released
into the atmosphere. This gas also helps the world maintain a "greenhouse
effect" keeping its present temperature constant.
If there were less carbon dioxide, the amount
of plant-life on land and in the sea would be reduced, leaving less
food for animals. There would be less bicarbonate in the oceans,
thus causing an increase in acidity. An increase in carbon dioxide
in the atmosphere would expedite the chemical erosion of land forming
a detrimental alkali residue in oceans. In addition, the greenhouse
effect would increase, thus causing the surface temperature of the
earth to rise and life on earth to be destroyed.
As seen, the existence of the atmosphere has
great importance for the continuation of life on earth. A number
of astrophysical conditions have to co-exist for the atmosphere
to be maintained.
How many signs there
are in the heavens and earth! Yet they pass them by, turning
away from them.
(Surah Yusuf: 105)
A) The earth’s surface has to remain at a certain moderate temperature,
within definite limits. For this:
1. The earth has to be a certain distance from
the sun. This distance plays a role in the quantity of heat energy
reaching the earth from the sun. A slight deviation in the earth’s
orbit around the sun – either drawing closer or farther – would
cause great changes in the heat reaching the earth from the sun.
Calculations show that a 13% decrease in the heat reaching the earth
would cause it to be covered with an ice layer 1,000 metres thick.
A slight increase in energy, on the other hand, would cause all
living things to be scorched.
2. The temperature should be homogeneous across
the earth. For this, the world has to rotate about its axis at a
certain speed (1,670 km/hr at the equator). If the earth’s speed
of rotation were to exceed a certain limit, the atmosphere would
grow extremely warm, increasing the gas molecules’ velocity of escape
from the earth and causing the atmosphere to be dispersed in space
and to vanish.
If the earth’s velocity of rotation were slower than required, then
gas molecules’ velocity of escape from the earth would decrease
and they would also disappear through being absorbed by the earth
because of the effect of gravitation.
3. The 23° 27' inclination of the earth's axis prevents the excess
heat between the poles and the equator liable to pose an obstacle
to the formation of the atmosphere. There is a heat difference of
120°C between the poles and the equator.
B) A layer is needed to prevent the dispersion
of generated heat:
To keep the earth’s surface temperature at a
constant level, temperature loss must be prevented, particularly
at nights. For this purpose, there is a need for a compound to prevent
heat loss from the atmosphere. This need is met by introducing carbon
dioxide in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide covers the earth like
a quilt and prevents the loss of heat to space.
Mankind! Worship your
Lord, who created you and those before you, so that hopefully
you will have taqwa. It is He who made the earth a couch for
you, and the sky a dome.
(Surat al-Baqarah: 21-22)
C) On earth, there are certain structures
maintaining the balance of heat between the poles and the equator:
There is a heat difference of 120°C between the
poles and the equator. If such a heat difference had
existed on a more even surface, there would be
tremendous atmospheric movement, and heavy storms with speed of
1,000 km per hour would turn the world upside down. Because of these
storms, the equilibrium in the atmosphere would soon be destroyed
and the atmosphere would dissipate.
However, the earth is uneven and that blocks potential powerful
air currents that might have arisen due to the heat difference.
The unevenness starts with the Himalayas between the Indian sub-continent
and China, continues with the Taurus Mountains in Anatolia, and
reaches the Alps in Europe through mountain-chains joining the Atlantic
Ocean in the west and the Pacific Ocean in the east. In the oceans,
the excess heat formed at the equator is channelled to north and
south due to the properties of liquids, thus balancing the heat
As seen, the existence of air, one of the basic
elements of life, has become possible only with the establishment
of thousands of physical and ecological balances. Moreover, the
establishment of those conditions alone on our planet is not sufficient
for the continuation of life on earth. If the world were to exist
in its present state with its geophysical structure and its motion
in space, yet have a different position in the galaxy, the balance
would still be upset.
For instance, a smaller star instead of the sun
would cause the earth to grow extremely cold, and a bigger star
would scorch the earth.
It is sufficient to look at the dead planets
in space in order to understand that the earth is not a result of
random coincidence. The conditions essential for life are too complicated
to have been formed "on their own" and at random, and, certainly
within the solar system, the earth alone is especially created
The nitrogen cycle is another evidence that the
earth is especially designed for human life.
The nitrogen balance and bacteria
Nitrogen is one of the basic elements found in
the tissues of all living organisms. Although 78% of the atmosphere
consists of nitrogen, human beings and animals cannot absorb it
directly. It is the main function of bacteria to meet our need for
The nitrogen cycle starts with the gas nitrogen (N2)
in the air. Bacteria living in some plants transform nitrogen in
the air into ammonia (NH3). Other types of bacteria,
on the other hand, transform ammonia into nitrate (NO3).
(Lightning also plays an important role in the transformation of
the nitrogen in the air into ammonia.)
At the next stage, living things that produce
their own food, such as green plants, absorb nitrogen. Animals and
human beings that cannot produce their own food can meet their nitrogen
need only by eating these plants.
The nitrogen in animals and human beings returns
to nature through their faeces and their corpses which bacteria
decompose. While doing so, bacteria not only perform the task of
cleaning but also release ammonia, the main source of nitrogen.
While a certain amount of ammonia is converted to carbon by some
other bacteria and mixes with the air, another part is converted
to nitrate by other types of bacteria. Plants use them and the cycle
The lack of bacteria in this cycle alone would
bring the end of life. Without bacteria, plants could not meet their
need for carbon and would soon become extinct. It is not possible
to talk of life in a place where no plants exist.
Though we are generally not aware of them, many
meteorites fall on the earth as well as on other planets. The reason
why these meteorites, which form giant craters when they fall on other
planets, do not harm the earth is that the atmosphere exerts very
strong friction on the falling meteors. Meteors cannot withstand this
friction for long and lose immense mass by being burned. Thus, capable
of causing great disasters, this danger is averted thanks to the atmosphere.
The earth's preserved and protected roof:
In the Qur’an, this characteristic in the creation
of the atmosphere is explained: "We made the
sky a preserved and protected roof yet still they turn away from
Our signs." (Surat al-Anbiya: 32)
One of the most important indications that the
sky is "a preserved and protected roof" is the magnetic field surrounding
the earth. The top layer of the atmosphere is made up of a magnetic
zone called the "Van Allen Belt". This zone is formed by the qualities
of the earth’s core.
The core of the earth contains heavy magnetic
elements like iron and nickel. What is more important, however,
is that the core is composed of two distinct structures. The inner
core is solid while the outer core is liquid. The outer layer floats
on top of the inner layer, creating a magnetic effect on heavy metals,
which in turn forms a magnetic field. The Van Allen Belt is an extension
of this magnetic zone reaching the outer layer of the atmosphere.
This magnetic field shields the earth against possible dangers from
One of the most serious of these dangers is the
"solar winds". Apart from heat, light and radiation, the sun sends
the earth a wind made up of protons and electrons moving at a speed
of 1.5 million kilometres per hour.
Solar winds cannot pass through the Van Allen
Belts, which create magnetic fields at a distance of 40,000 miles
from the earth. When the solar wind, in the form of a rain of particles,
runs into this magnetic field, it decomposes and flows around this
The atmosphere absorbs most of the X-rays and
ultraviolet rays emitted by the sun. Without this absorption, life
on earth would be impossible.
The atmospheric zones surrounding us only let
harmless rays, radio waves, and visible light reach the earth. If
our atmosphere did not have such impermeability, we could neither
use radio waves for communication nor have daylight, which is the
basis of life.
The ozone layer surrounding the earth prevents
harmful ultraviolet rays from the sun from reaching the earth. Ultraviolet
rays from the sun are so charged with energy that they could kill
all living things on earth. For this reason, to make life possible
on earth, the ozone layer is another especially created part of
the "preserved and protected roof" of the sky.
Ozone is produced from oxygen. While there are
two oxygen atoms in the (O2) molecules of oxygen gas,
there are three oxygen atoms in the (O3) molecules of
ozone gas.Ultraviolet rays coming from the sun add one more atom
to the oxygen molecule to form the ozone molecule. The ozone layer,
which is formed by the action of ultraviolet, arrests fatal ultraviolet
rays and thus constitutes one of the most basic conditions of life
Briefly, if the earth’s core did not have the
quality of forming magnetic field, and the atmosphere did not have
the structure and density to filter harmful rays, life on earth
would be out of the question. It is, no doubt, impossible for any
human being or any other living being to have ordered those. It
is evident that Allah has created those protective features that
are critically essential for human life, and that He created the
sky as a "preserved and protected roof".
That other planets lack such "preserved and protected
roofs" is another indication that the earth is specially designed
for human life. For instance, the entire core of the planet Mars
is solid and therefore there is no protective magnetic shield around
it. Because Mars is not as big as the earth, not enough pressure
has been generated to form the liquid part of the core. In addition,
being the right size alone is not enough for the formation of a
magnetic field around a planet. For instance, the diameter of Venus
is almost the same as that of the earth. Its mass is only 2% less
than the earth’s and its weight is almost the same as the earth’s.
Therefore, both in terms of pressure and for other reasons, it is
inevitable that a metallic liquid part should form in the core of
Venus. However, there is no magnetic field around Venus, the reason
being the relatively slower rotation of Venus as compared to earth.
While earth completes its rotation about its axis in one day, Venus
does so in 243 days.
The sizes of the moon and other neighbouring
planets and their distances to the earth are also important for
the existence of the magnetic field constituting the "preserved
and protected roof" of the earth. If one of these planets was bigger
than its actual size, it would cause it to have a greater gravitational
force. A neighbouring planet with such a large gravitational force
would change the velocity of the liquid and solid parts of the earth’s
core and prevent the formation of a magnetic field in its present
Briefly, the sky’s having the quality of a "preserved
and protected roof" requires that many variables such as the structure
of the earth’s core, its rotational speed, the distance between
planets, and the masses of planets converge at the most correct
The water cycle and life
Each moment, millions of cubic metres of water
are carried from the oceans to the atmosphere and then to the land.
Life depends on this giant water cycle. If we had attempted to arrange
this cycle, we would not have been able to succeed even if we had
used all the technology in the world. Through evaporation, however,
we obtain water, the first and foremost condition of life, without
any extra cost or energy. Each year 45 million cubic metres of water
evaporate from the oceans. The evaporated water is carried by winds
over the lands in the form of clouds. Each year, 3-4 million cubic
metres of water are carried from oceans to lands, and therefore
Simply put, water, over whose cycle we have no
control, and without which we cannot live more than a few days,
is sent to us in a very special way.
The Qur’an reminds us that this is one of the
most evident signs for which man should be "grateful":
Have you thought about the water that you drink? Is it you who sent
it down from the clouds or are We the Sender? If We wished We could
have made it bitter, so will you not give thanks? (Surat al-Waqi’ah:
In the eleventh verse of Surat az-Zukhruf, rain
is defined as water sent down in "due measure". "It is He (Allah)
who sends down water in due measure from the sky."
Rain is sent down in due measure
Indeed, rain falls on the earth in an unerring
It is He who sends
down water from the sky. From it you drink and from it come
the shrubs among which you graze your herds. And by it He
makes crops grow for you and olives and dates and grapes and
fruit of every kind. There is certainly a sign in that for
people who reflect.
(Surat an-Nahl: 10-11)
The first of the measures related to rain is
its speed of descent. When dropped from a height of 1,200 metres,
an object having the same weight and size as a rain-drop would continuously
accelerate and fall on the ground at a speed of 558 km/h. The average
speed of raindrops, however, is only 8-10 km/h.
The reason for this is that the raindrop has
a special form that increases the frictional effect of the atmosphere
and helps it fall on the ground more slowly. A glance at the figures
below is sufficient to understand the disaster the earth would face
every time it rained if rain raindrops were in a different form,
or the atmosphere did not have the quality of friction.
The minimum altitude of rain clouds is 1,200
metres. The effect caused by a single drop falling from that height
is equal to a 1 kg object dropped from 15 cm. There are also rain
clouds at altitudes of 10,000 metres. In this case, a single drop
would have an effect equal to a 1 kg object dropped from 110 cm.
It is estimated that in one second, approximately 16 million tons
of water evaporate from the earth. This number is equal to the amount
of water that drops on the earth in one second. In one year, this
figure amounts to 505x1012 tons. Water continuously circulates in
a balanced cycle according to a "measure".
Only after weather radar was invented was it possible
to discover the stages by which rain is formed. According to this,
the formation of rain takes place in three stages. First, the formation
of wind; second, the formation of clouds; third, the emergence of
The formation of rain
What is related in the Qur’an about the formation
of rain shows great parallels with these discoveries:
It is Allah who sends the winds (1st Stage)
which stir up clouds which He spreads about the sky however He wills.
He forms them into dark clumps (2nd Stage) and you see the rain
come pouring out from the middle of them (3rd stage). When He makes
it fall on those of His slaves He wills, they rejoice! (Surat ar-Rum:
FIRST STAGE: "It is Allah
who sends the winds..."
Countless air bubbles formed by the foaming of
the oceans continuously burst and cause water particles to be ejected
towards the sky. These particles which are rich in salt, are then
carried away by winds and ascend in the atmosphere. These particles,
which are called aerosols, function as water traps, and form cloud
drops by collecting around themselves the water vapour, which ascends
from the seas as tiny drops.
SECOND STAGE: " ...
which stir up clouds which He spreads about the sky however He wills.
He forms them into dark clumps..."
The clouds form from water vapour that condenses
around the salt crystals or dust particles in the air. Because the
water drops in these clouds are very small (with a diameter between
0.01 and 0.02 mm), the clouds are suspended in the air and they
spread in the sky. Thus, the sky is covered with clouds.
THIRD STAGE: "...and you see the rain
come pouring out from the middle of them."
The water particles that surround salt crystals
and dust particles thicken and form raindrops, so, the drops which
become heavier than air leave the clouds, and start to fall on the
ground as rain.
The rain made sweet
The Qur’an draws our attention to the rain’s
Have you thought about the water that you
drink? Is it you who sent it down from the clouds or are We the
Sender? If We wished We could have made it bitter, so will you not
give thanks? (Surat al-Waqi’ah: 68-70)
…and (did We not) give you sweet
fresh water to drink? (Surat al-Mursalat: 27)
It is He who sends down water
from the sky. From it you drink and from it come the shrubs among
which you graze your herds. (Surat an-Nahl: 10)
As we know, the source of rainwater is evaporation
and 97% of evaporation takes place from "salty" oceans. Rainwater,
however, is sweet. The reason why rain is sweet is because of another
physical law that Allah established. According to this law, no matter
whether water evaporates from salt seas, or mineralised lakes, or
from within mud, it does not contain any foreign material. It falls
on the ground pure and clean according to Allah’s ordinance "…And We send down from heaven pure water" (Surat al-Furqan:
"Among His Signs is
that you see the earth laid bare and then when We send down
water on it, it quivers and swells. He who gives it life is
He who gives life to the dead. Certainly He has power over
(Surah Fussilat: 39)
In the Qur’an, many verses call our attention
the rain’s function of "bringing a dead land to life".
"…And We send down from heaven pure water so that by it We can bring
a dead land to life and give drink to many of the animals and people
We created." (Surat al – Furqan: 48-49)
Rains that give life to a dead land
In addition to furnishing the earth with water,
which is an inevitable need of living beings, rain also has a fertilising
Raindrops that reach the clouds after being evaporated
from the seas contain certain substances "that will give life" to
a dead land. These "life-giving" drops are called "surface tension
drops". Surface tension drops form on the top level of the sea’s
surface, which is called the micro layer by biologists. In this
layer, which is thinner than one tenth of a millimetre, there are
many organic leftovers from the pollution caused by microscopic
algae and zooplankton. Some of these leftovers select and collect
within themselves some elements which are very rare in sea water,
such as phosphorus, magnesium, potassium and some heavy metals like
copper, zinc, cobalt and lead. These "fertiliser"-laden drops are
lifted up into the sky by the winds and after a while they drop
on the ground inside the raindrops. Seeds and plants on the earth
find numerous metallic salts and elements essential for their growth
here in these raindrops. This event is revealed in another verse:
"And We sent down blessed water from the
sky and made gardens grow by it and grain for harvesting." (Surah
The salts that fall in rain are small examples of
certain conventional fertilisers (calcium, magnesium, potassium, etc.)
used for increasing fertility. The heavy metals found in these types
of aerosols, on the other hand, are other elements that increase fertility
in the development and production of plants.
Briefly, rain is an important fertiliser. A barren land can be furnished
with all the essential elements for plants, over a hundred-year period,
just by these fertilisers dropped with rain. Forests also develop
and are fed with the help of these sea-based aerosols.
In this way, 150 million tons of fertiliser
falls on the total land surface every year. If there were no natural
fertilisation like this, there would be very little vegetation on
the earth, and the ecological balance would be impaired.
One of the most interesting and important qualities
of water is that, unlike other substances, its solid state is lighter
than its liquid state – that is, ice is lighter than water. For this
reason, seas start freezing from above, because the frozen layer is
lighter than the liquid part of the water. Thus, the risk that the
sea would totally freeze causing life to cease to exist is eliminated,
because the frozen layer which rises above insulates the liquid part
remaining below the sea from the cold weather outside.
The use of freezing from above
If ice were heavier than water (which is what
would normally be expected), then seas would start freezing from
the bottom. In this case, the insulation referred to above would
not occur, all of the seas would freeze and life in water would
be destroyed. Since ice takes up more space than water, the frozen
seas would take up more space than before and cause the water on
the top to rise and overflow.
In addition, that water’s heaviest state is
+4°C is very important for life. In seas, water reaching +4°C sinks
to the bottom as it is at its heaviest. For this reason, the bottom
of the seas that are covered with icebergs is always in a liquid
state, and has a temperature of +4°C in which living beings can
survive. Similarly, in wintertime, the bottoms of lakes and rivers
covered with an icy layer are also life supportive.
It is He who made
the earth a cradle for you and threaded pathways for you through
it and sent down water from the sky by which We have brought
forth various different types of plants.
(Surah Ta Ha: 53)
Water's late warming up and freezing
Another feature of water is its slow evaporation and freezing. It
is a known fact that in the summer months, the sand that rapidly
warms up during the day also rapidly cools down at night. The temperature
of seawater, on the other hand, only varies two to three degrees
between day and night. The reason for this is that water somehow
maintains its temperature in sudden rises and falls in temperature,
and delays evaporation and freezing. When this quality of water
is considered at the level of the entire world, it can be seen that
water, either in liquid form or as steam, in oceans and the atmosphere,
has the most important role in the earth’s temperature. Waters that
cover the earth prevent overheating by absorbing the heat in that
part of the world exposed to the sun. Similarly, in those parts
that are not subjected to the sun as directly as elsewhere, oceans
and other waters function, with the heat they possess, as a radiator
and prevent the temperature from falling too low. This way, the
temperature difference between day and night always remains within
reasonable limits which human beings and other living things can
tolerate. If the amount of water on the earth were less than the
land area, then the temperature difference between night and day
would increase a great deal, transforming the earth into a desert
and making life impossible or, at least very difficult.
weight of clouds
Clouds can be incredibly heavy. For instance,
in a storm cloud called "Cumulo-nimbus" up to 300,000 tons of water
The establishment of an order whereby a mass
of 300,000 tons can rest in the sky is no doubt quite amazing. A
verse in the Qur’an draws our attention to the weight of clouds:
"It He is who sends out the winds, bringing
advance news of His mercy, so that when they have lifted up the
heavy clouds, We dispatch them to a dead land and send down water
to it, by means of which We bring forth all kinds of fruit. In the
same way We will bring forth the dead, so that hopefully you will
pay heed." (Surat al-A’raf: 57)
And He has made everything
in the heavens and everything on the earth subservient to
you. It is all from Him. There are certainly signs in that
for people who reflect.
(Surat al-Jathiyah: 13)
"…and the varying direction of the winds,
there are signs for people who use their intellect." (Surat al-Jathiyah:
Wind is the air current formed between different
temperature zones. Varying temperatures in the atmosphere give rise
to different air pressures, making the air continuously flow from
high pressure to low. If the difference between pressure centres,
that is, temperatures in the atmosphere, is too high, then the air
current, that is, the wind becomes very strong. This is how such highly
destructive winds as hurricanes are formed.
What is interesting is that despite highly
divergent zones of temperature and pressure such as the equator
and the poles, our world is not continually exposed to very strong
winds thanks to some barriers and "regulations". If the giant air
current, which otherwise would likely have been formed between the
poles and the equator, had not been softened by the means that will
be described below, the earth would have been turned into a dead
planet constantly exposed to heavy storms.
Principally, altitude differences on earth
break the force of the winds. Highly differing altitudes give rise
to warm and cold front systems. Seen on the lower slopes of mountains,
these systems cause new winds. Thus, the bi-centred system between
the equator and the pole transforms into a multi-centred system
thanks to cliffs, and winds are softened by being channelled in
different directions. The mountain chains on the earth’s crust function
like giant air corridors. Corridors help the winds spread air evenly
across the earth.
The inclination of the world’s axis also has
a great role in the softening of the winds. If the axis of the earth
had been exactly perpendicular to its orbit, the earth would have
suffered from violent storms throughout. However, the equator of
our planet is tilted at an angle of 23 Centi degree 27’ with respect
to its plane of orbit. Thus, the temperature does not always remain
the same in the regions between the two poles and changes according
to seasons. This means that the air pressure is brought into balance
and that therefore the force of the wind is lessened. As the temperature
difference between the equator and the two poles decreases, the
winds blow warmer.
In addition, two gas layers have been created
around the planet to balance the temperature difference. The ozone
and carbon dioxide layers balance the temperature of the atmosphere.
The ozone layer absorbs "excessive" sunrays. Carbon dioxide, on
the other hand, has an opposite function: it retains the acquired
heat and thus prevents cooling.
All of this material shows us that man owes
his life to a great system containing increasingly complex sub-systems.
The whole universe is created to make human life possible.